Table 1

Demographic and clinical characteristics of total participants stratified by gender

CharacteristicsOverall (n=2007)Men (n=957)Women (n=1050)P value*
Age (years)56 (49, 65)53 (48, 64)58 (51, 66)<0.001
Waist circumference (cm)91.4 (9.4)92.2 (9.4)90.7 (9.4)<0.001
Hypertension (n, %)1150 (57.3)532 (55.6)618 (58.9)0.139
SBP (mm Hg)142 (128, 159)141 (129, 158)143 (127, 160)0.618
DBP (mm Hg)87 (79, 96)89 (81, 97)86 (78, 94)<0.001
Smoking habit (n, %)447 (22.3)434 (45.4)13 (1.2)<0.001
Drinking habit (n, %)657 (32.7)612 (63.9)45 (4.3)<0.001
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)5.29 (4.67, 5.98)5.16 (4.59, 5.78)5.40 (4.78, 6.12)<0.001
Triglyceride (mmol/L)1.10 (0.81, 1.61)0.97 (0.71, 1.45)1.22 (0.89, 1.73)<0.001
HDL-C (mmol/L)1.58(1.35,1.87)1.57 (1.33, 1.90)1.58 (1.38, 1.83)0.619
LDL-C (mmol/L)2.94 (2.52, 3.40)2.82 (2.43, 3.30)3.06 (2.64, 3.51)<0.001
Use of cholesterol-lowering medications (n, %)21 (2.6)5 (1.5)16 (3.3)0.115
Use of antihypertensive medication (n, %)325 (28.3)134 (25.2)191 (30.9)0.032
FPG (mmol/L)5.65 (5.24, 6.20)5.61 (5.24, 6.11)5.68 (5.25, 6.29)0.048
DM (n, %)307 (15.3)119 (12.4)188 (17.9)0.001
Use of glucose-lowering medications (n, %)139 (45.3)47 (39.5)92 (48.9)0.105
MetS (n, %)950 (47.3)373 (39.0)577 (55.0)<0.001
HOMA-IR1.98 (1.28, 2.97)1.68 (1.03, 2.52)2.31 (1.59, 3.36)<0.001
Fasting insulin (mUI/L)7.78 (5.15, 11.12)6.48 (4.11, 9.52)8.77 (6.15, 11.99)<0.001
IR (n, %)492 (24.5)169 (17.7)323 (30.8)<0.001
aICAS (n, %)99 (4.9)39 (4.1)60 (5.7)0.090
  • Data wre shown as numbers (%), mean (SD), and median (first, third quartiles).

  • *Comparison according to gender using t-test, Mann-Whitney U test and χ2 test appropriately.

  • aICAS, asymptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; DM, diabetes mellitus; FPG, fasting plasma glucose; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; IR, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR ≥3); LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; MetS, metabolic syndrome; SBP, systolic blood pressure.