Table 3

Characteristics (means and percent distributions) among US adults classified as having type 1 diabetes according to five algorithms, USA 2016–2017

Algorithm 1
(n=645)
Algorithm 2
(n=189)
Algorithm 3
(n=286)
Algorithm 4
(n=226)
Algorithm 5
(n=355)
Continuous insulin use* beginning within 1 year of diabetes diagnosisDiabetes diagnosed at age <30 years and continuous insulin use beginning within 1 year of diagnosisDiabetes diagnosed at age <40 years and continuous insulin use beginning within 1 year of diagnosisSelf-report of type 1 diabetes and continuous insulin use beginning within 1 year of diagnosisSelf-report of type 1 diabetes and current insulin use
Age
 Mean54.3 (0.85)40.9 (1.48)44.0 (1.17)44.4 (1.49)49.2 (1.31)
 18–44 years27.9 (2.41)60.9 (4.45)55.0 (3.61)51.0 (4.24)40.3 (3.62)
 45–64 years42.4 (2.64)28.8 (3.98)33.3 (3.41)33.5 (3.83)35.7 (3.13)
 ≥65 years29.7 (2.19)10.3 (2.68)11.7 (2.16)15.5 (2.63)24.0 (2.63)
Sex
 Men57.6 (2.34)48.7 (4.59)54.2 (3.79)55.9 (4.32)54.8 (3.41)
 Women42.4 (2.34)51.3 (4.59)45.8 (3.79)44.1 (4.32)45.2 (3.41)
Race/ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic white61.9 (2.75)74.0 (3.92)66.8 (3.40)77.1 (3.76)76.0 (3.00)
 Non-Hispanic black19.2 (2.75)14.2 (3.29)17.4 (2.80)7.6 (2.33)8.9 (1.89)
 Non-Hispanic Asian2.4 (0.89)0.1 (0.10)0.6 (0.55)2.2 (1.11)2.3 (1.02)
 Hispanic14.4 (1.99)11.0 (3.02)14.0 (2.82)10.9 (2.88)10.7 (2.29)
 Mexican American
Age of diagnosis
 Mean (years)30.9 (0.38)15.6 (0.81)21.6 (0.88)23.9 (1.37)27.7 (1.22)
 <20 years21.0 (2.17)63.0 (4.69)42.8 (3.85)48.2 (4.37)39.3 (3.39)
 20–29 years12.3 (1.75)37.1 (4.69)25.2 (3.38)19.8 (3.26)17.3 (2.48)
 30–39 years15.7 (1.83)32.1 (3.30)12.4 (2.41)17.0 (2.21)
 40–49 years19.8 (1.99)8.8 (2.08)11.5 (1.97)
 50–59 years18.7 (1.94)6.5 (2.01)8.7 (1.70)
 ≥60 years12.5 (1.58)4.4 (1.44)6.2 (1.63)
Self-reported type
 Type 1 diabetes37.1 (2.44)74.7 (3.80)61.3 (3.74)100100
 Type 2 diabetes62.9 (2.44)25.3 (3.80)38.7 (3.74)
Body mass index (kg/m2)
 Mean30.9 (0.38)28.6 (0.57)30.1 (0.60)27.4 (0.48)28.5 (0.44)
 <25.023.6 (2.13)37.0 (4.33)32.1 (3.59)39.6 (4.10)34.2 (3.24)
 25.0–29.929.1 (2.47)30.1 (4.24)27.8 (3.36)38.3 (4.27)36.2 (3.48)
 ≥30.047.3 (2.59)32.9 (4.08)40.1 (3.68)22.1 (3.17)29.7 (3.07)
Gestational diabetes among women who have been pregnant
 No80.5 (3.06)69.5 (6.46)67.7 (5.13)79.9 (4.49)
 Yes19.5 (3.06)30.5 (6.46)32.3 (5.13)20.1 (4.49)
Continuous insulin use within 1 year of diagnosis*
 No32.5 (2.85)
 Yes10010010010067.5 (2.85)
Oral hypoglycemic medication
 No56.7 (2.77)83.9 (3.60)70.3 (3.65)88.9 (2.92)80.9 (2.69)
 Yes43.3 (2.77)16.1 (3.60)29.7 (3.65)11.1 (2.92)19.0 (2.69)
Only oral hypoglycemic medication
 No100100100100100
 Yes
  • *Continuous insulin use implies current insulin use as well. Only those who report current insulin use are asked when they started insulin treatment.

  • †Data do not meet the National Center for Health Statistics Data Presentation Standards for Proportions.

  • ‡Values are not applicable due to inclusion/exclusion criteria of the algorithm.