Table 2

Percentage (SE) of adults classified as having type 1 diabetes according to five algorithms among US adults with diagnosed diabetes, overall and among subgroups, USA 2016–2017

Algorithm 1
(n=645)
Algorithm 2
(n=189)
Algorithm 3
(n=286)
Algorithm 4
(n=226)
Algorithm 5
(n=355)
Continuous insulin use* beginning within 1 year of diabetes diagnosisDiabetes diagnosed at age <30 years and continuous insulin use beginning within 1 year of diagnosisDiabetes diagnosed at age <40 years and continuous insulin use beginning within 1 year of diagnosisSelf-report of type 1 diabetes and continuous insulin use beginning within 1 year of diagnosisSelf-report of type 1 diabetes and current insulin use
Weighted population size (millions)2.380.771.130.851.30
Percent (SE)
Overall10.2 (0.48)3.4 (0.29)4.9 (0.34)3.7 (0.29)5.6 (0.35)
Age (years)
 18–4421.3 (1.93)15.3 (1.62)20.4 (1.83)14.0 (1.57)16.9 (1.83)
 45–649.7 (0.76)2.2 (0.35)3.7 (0.45)2.7 (0.38)4.4 (0.47)
 ≥657.2 (0.59)0.8 (0.22)1.4 (0.26)1.4 (0.24)3.2 (0.37)
Sex
 Men11.4 (0.71)3.2 (0.41)5.2 (0.54)4.0 (0.43)5.9 (0.49)
 Women8.9 (0.63)3.5 (0.43)4.7 (0.47)3.3 (0.43)5.2 (0.54)
Race/ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic white10.4 (0.61)4.1 (0.39)5.4 (0.44)4.6 (0.41)7.0 (0.47)
 Non-Hispanic black12.9 (1.50)3.1 (0.79)5.6 (1.00)1.8 (0.57)3.3 (0.72)
 Non-Hispanic Asian0.1 (0.06)0.6 (0.55)1.6 (0.82)
 Hispanic8.7 (1.21)2.2 (0.64)4.1 (0.88)2.3 (0.69)3.5 (0.83)
 Mexican American6.4 (1.28)1.2 (0.51)2.6 (0.71)1.3 (0.49)1.6 (0.52)
Age of diagnosis (years)
 <2032.4 (3.07)32.4 (3.07)32.4 (3.07)26.9 (2.99)33.1 (3.31)
 20–2917.1 (2.44)17.1 (2.44)17.1 (2.44)9.9 (1.67)13.1 (1.90)
 30–3911.7 (1.39)11.7 (1.39)3.3 (0.68)6.9 (9.8)
 40–499.1 (1.00)1.5 (0.36)2.9 (0.51)
 50–597.1 (0.80)0.9 (0.28)1.8 (0.36)
 ≥605.7 (0.73)0.7 (0.24)1.5 (0.40)
Self-reported type
 Type 1 diabetes35.0 (2.21)23.6 (2.1)27.9 (2.22)35.0 (2.21)53.4 (2.56)
 Type 2 diabetes7.5 (0.48)1.0 (0.18)2.2 (0.27)
Body mass index (kg/m2)
 <25.016.8 (1.57)8.8 (1.32)11.1 (1.45)10.2 (1.35)13.3 (1.54)
 25.0–29.99.7 (0.94)3.4 (0.53)4.5 (0.60)4.6 (0.64)6.6 (0.73)
 ≥30.08.9 (0.63)2.1 (0.31)3.7 (0.43)1.5 (0.24)3.1 (0.35)
Gestational diabetes among women who have been pregnant
 No8.0 (0.73)2.5 (0.43)3.3 (0.47)2.6 (0.42)4.1 (0.51)
 Yes7.1 (1.24)4.0 (0.98)5.7 (1.09)1.5 (0.58)3.8 (0.94
Continuous insulin use within 1 year of diagnosis*
 No2.0 (0.21)
 Yes10032.8 (2.27)48.6 (2.46)35.8 (2.38)35.8 (2.38)
Oral hypoglycemic medication
 No21.1 (1.27)10.3 (0.92)12.7 (1.05)11.9 (1.00)16.5 (1.13)
 Yes6.1 (0.48)0.7 (0.18)2.0 (0.28)0.6 (0.15)1.5 (0.21)
  • *Continuous insulin use implies current insulin use as well. Only those who report current insulin use are asked when they started insulin treatment.

  • †Data do not meet the National Center for Health Statistics Data Presentation Standards for Proportions.

  • ‡Values are not applicable due to inclusion/exclusion criteria of the algorithm.