Table 1

Characteristics of the study population at baseline

Age, mean (SD), years129866.0 (9.8)
Female sex, %128941.6
Ethnicity, Caucasian, %128892.9
Marital status (married or cohabitating), %129176.5
Educational level (low/intermediate/high), %128134.4/44.9/20.7
Employment status (having a job), %125428.8
Smoking, %127212.4
Alcohol use (yes), %126647.3
PAM score, mean (SD)118858.9 (11.7)
EQ-5D score, median (IQR)12080.84 (0.78–1.00)
ADDQoL score, median (IQR)1246−0.36 (−1.19 to −0.06)
BIPQ, mean (SD)
 Consequence12594.1 (2.7)
 Timeline12298.5 (2.4)
 Personal control12586.8 (2.2)
 Treatment control12457.5 (2.2)
 Identity12593.5 (2.7)
 Illness concern12614.7 (3.0)
 Coherence12487.0 (2.2)
 Emotional representation12573.1 (2.9)
PAID score, median (IQR)12613 (1–7)
SDSCA, mean (SD)
 General diet11994.7 (1.9)
 Physical exercise12174.0 (2.0)
 Blood glucose testing11541.4 (2.3)
 Foot care12021.6 (2.1)
Treatment setting (PC/SC), %129987.9/12.1
Diabetes duration, median (IQR), years120810 (5–16)
Number of comorbidities, median (IQR)12671 (1–3)
HbA1c, median (IQR), %12316.8 (6.4–7.5)
LDL cholesterol, mean (SD), mg/dL120392.8 (30.9)
Systolic blood pressure, mean (SD), mm Hg1228136.7 (15.6)
BMI, median (IQR), kg/m2122429.3 (26.4–33.1)
Blood glucose-lowering medication, %1221
 No medication19.2
 Oral medication only56.1
 Insulin monotherapy or insulin and oral medication24.7
Lipid-lowering medication, %121978.8
Blood pressure-lowering medication, %122077.5
  • ADDQoL, Audit of Diabetes-Dependent Quality of Life; BIPQ, Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire; BMI, body mass index; EQ-5D, EuroQol-5 Dimension; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; PAID, Problem Areas In Diabetes scale; PAM, Patient Activation Measure; PC, primary care; SC, secondary care; SDSCA, Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities measure.