Table 2

Association between baseline seasonal-standardized serum 25(OH)D level and the 11-year risk of T2DM

Seasonal-standardized serum
25(OH)D level (nmol/L)
Crude OR
(95% CI)
Adjusted OR
(95% CI)*
 <502059673.32.00 (1.26 to 3.19)1.72 (1.03 to 2.86)
 ≥501515251.71.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
Continuous†3574922.61.53 (1.08 to 2.18)1.30 (0.88 to 1.93)
  • T2DM was defined as reported diabetes and/or non-fasting serum glucose levels of ≥11 mmol/L and the value of serum glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies of <0.08 ai.

  • *Adjusted for age, sex, education, economic difficulties, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, sitting time per day, family history of diabetes and chronic diseases.

  • †per 25 nmol/L decrease in serum 25(OH)D.

  • ai, antibody index; 25(OH)D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus.