Table 1

Characteristics of the study population (N=850)

CharacteristicN (%)/mean (SD)/median (Q1; Q3)
Sex, female440 (51.9)
Age, years61 (54; 67)
BMI, kg/m226.2 (24.0; 29.5)
Waist circumference, cm94.5 (85.9; 103.1)
HbA1c, mmol/mol37 (34; 44)
Glucose metabolism status
 Normal475 (56.1)
 Pre-diabetes118 (13.9)
 Type 2 diabetes252 (29.8)
 Other diabetes types2 (0.2)
Total cholesterol, mmol/L5.1 (1.1)
Triglycerides, mmol/L1.2 (0.9; 1.7)
eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m284.1 (73.3; 93.1)
Hypertension581 (68.6)
History of CVD162 (19.2)
 Never324 (38.3)
 Former397 (46.9)
 Current125 (14.8)
Alcohol consumption*
 None187 (22.1)
 Low469 (55.4)
 High190 (22.5)
Glucose-lowering drugs191 (22.5)
Lipid-lowering drugs304 (35.9)
Antihypertensive drugs334 (39.4)
NSAIDs74 (8.7)
 Tibial nerve, m/s43.4 (4.9)
 Sural nerve, m/s47.6 (5.6)
 Peroneal nerve, m/s45.4 (4.7)
Sural SNAP amplitude (µV)10.6 (6.7)
  • Continuous data are given as mean (SD) or median (IQR). Categorical variables are given as numbers and percentages (%).

  • Missing values: sex (n=3); age (n=3); BMI (n=3); waist circumference (n=3); HbA1c (n=3); glucose metabolism status (n=3); total cholesterol (n=3); triglycerides (n=3); hypertension (n=3); history of CVD (n=5); smoking (n=4); alcohol consumption (n=4); glucose-lowering drugs (n=3); lipid-lowering drugs (n=3); antihypertensive drugs (n=3); NSAIDs (n=3); tibial NCV (n=79); sural NCV (n=242); peroneal NCV (n=35); sural SNAP amplitude (n=235).

  • Missing values were excluded from percentage calculations and from calculations of mean (SD) or median (IQR).

  • *None defined as 0 glasses/week; low defined as ≤7 glasses/week for women and ≤14 glasses/week for men; high defined as >7 glasses/week for women and >14 glasses/week for men.

  • BMI, body mass index; CVD, cardiovascular disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; NCV, nerve conduction velocity; NSAIDs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; SNAP, sensory nerve action potential.