Table 2

Baseline characteristics of DHP and control employer groups

Employer-level characteristicDHP employers (n=9)Control employers (n=183)P value
Employer demographics
Mean employee age (SD)50.7 (3.4)50.2 (0.6)0.658
Proportion female (SD)41.7 (8.7)42.3 (1.8)0.828
Mean employee salary (SD)$64 503 (5902)$64 511 (5390)0.997
Mean number of employees (SD)10 321 (9970)10 628 (5390)0.937
Proportion of employees with diabetes or pre-diabetes (SD)3.3 (1.6)3.3 (0.3)0.913
Race/ethnicity distribution
 Mean % White (SD)61.0 (13.8)59.9 (2.7)0.808
 Mean % Black American (SD)9.2 (12.3)9.6 (1.8)0.923
 Mean % Asian (SD)2.2 (1.3)2.2 (0.5)0.905
 Mean % Latin/Hispanic (SD)17.7 (13.6)18.4 (2.9)0.884
 Mean % Other race (SD)3.4 (2.7)2.5 (0.3)0.339
Region (%)
 West4448
 Southeast3336
 Central Atlantic114
 New England1112
Proportion with high-deductible plan (SD)3.1 (5.0)3.4 (2.6)0.873
Proportion with comorbidities (SD)35.4 (4.2)35.1 (1.3)0.846
Baseline utilization, by employer
Proportion with any ER utilization in the preperiod (SD)18.2 (3.8)18.3 (0.9)0.985
Proportion with any inpatient hospital utilization in the preperiod (SD)10.9 (3.3)10.6 (0.5)0.817
  • DHP, Diabetes Health Plan; ER, emergency room.