Table 1

Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics by diabetes care practice

CharacteristicsDiabetes care practice (n=30 780; N=13 113 662)
Yes (n=8957; N=3 720 346)No (n=21 823; N=9 393 316)
Sample frequencyPopulation estimateSample frequencyPopulation estimate
nN (thousand; %)nN (thousand; %)
Sex
 Male39031843.6 (27.3)10 4404915.7 (72.7)
 Female50541876.8 (29.5)11 3834477.6 (70.5)
Age
 18–44394336.8 (22.8)13921142.0 (77.2)
 45–6433351677.1 (28.4)86014230.1 (71.6)
 65+52281706.5 (29.8)11 8304021.2 (70.2)
Body mass index (BMI)*
 Underweight/normal weight1199440.9 (25.2)31321311.8 (74.8)
 Overweight27161098.7 (27.6)68992885.0 (72.4)
 Obese50422180.8 (29.6)11 7925196.5 (70.4)
Race/ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic White61902305.4 (27.1)16 1476208.0 (72.9)
 Non-Hispanic Black1626865.5 (38.2)27271401.6 (61.8)
 Non-Hispanic other560163.9 (22.9)1442551.4 (77.1)
 Hispanic581385.5 (23.8)15071232.3 (76.2)
Marital status
 Couple†43992107.5 (28.7)10 9095244.8 (71.3)
 Widowed1914575.1 (30.2)41761330.9 (69.8)
 Divorced/separated/never married26441037.8 (26.9)67382817.6 (73.1)
Education
 <High school933571.5 (24.2)23151788.6 (75.8)
 High school29301273.0 (30.4)70262909.2 (69.6)
 Some college/technical26591232.5 (29.7)63452915.8 (70.3)
 College or above2435643.3 (26.5)61371779.7 (73.5)
Employment
 Employed2110992.2 (23.0)65343329.5 (77.0)
 Home maker/student/retired48491725.2 (30.4)11 0263958.1 (69.6)
 Not employed/unable to work19981003.0 (32.3)42632105.7 (67.7)
Smoking status
 Current1065498.5 (24.5)31981536.3 (75.5)
 Former32841343.0 (28.9)80753307.9 (71.1)
 Never46081878.9 (29.2)10 5504549.1 (70.8)
Alcohol intake in the past 30 days
 Yes25931080.2 (23.6)81043492.3 (76.4)
 No63642640.1 (30.9)13 7195901.0 (69.1)
Self-reported general health
 Good/better48871986.2 (27.7)12 8115185.7 (72.3)
 Fair/poor40701734.2 (29.2)90124207.6 (70.8)
Healthcare coverage‡
 Yes87073577.1 (29.2)20 7218665.6 (70.8)
 No250143.3 (16.4)1102727.7 (83.6)
Exercise in the past 30 days
 Yes54652288.2 (29.4)12 8725496.5 (70.6)
 No34921432.2 (26.9)89513896.8 (73.1)
Current insulin user§
 Yes45371893.1 (44.0)54392408.9 (56.0)
 No44201827.3 (20.7)16 3846984.4 (79.3)
Personal doctor/healthcare provider
 Yes86833568.8 (29.1)20 5178699.4 (70.9)
 No274151.5 (17.9)1306693.9 (82.1)
Could not see a doctor due to cost
 Yes873470.0 (25.0)26171406.9 (75.0)
 No80843250.3 (28.9)19 2067986.4 (71.1)
History of retinopathy
 Yes2130914.4 (35.6)35671653.1 (64.4)
 No68272806.0 (26.6)18 2567740.2 (73.4)
  • Diabetes care practice was defined as adherence to all four practices (daily blood glucose checks, daily foot checks, annual eye examinations, and annual cholesterol checks). Population estimates (N and %) were calculated accounting for the complex study design.

  • *BMI: underweight/normal weight: BMI<25, overweight: 25≤BMI<30, obese: BMI≥30.

  • †Married or unmarried.

  • ‡Healthcare coverage: have health insurance, prepaid plans such as health maintenance organizations (HMOs), or government plans such as Medicare, or Indian Health Service.

  • §Current insulin user: ‘Yes’ refers to individuals using insulin at the time of the survey, ‘No’ refers to individuals who never used insulin or used it in the past only.