Table 2

Sample characteristics stratified by diabetes status

T1DT2DNo diabetes
WomenMenWomenMenWomenMen
n (%)385 (51)373 (49)118 (51)114 (49)127 (51)120 (49)
Demographics
 Age (years), mean (SD)67.0 (6.2)67.5 (6.4)68.6 (7.0)68.8 (7.1)68.4 (6.8)69.0 (7.2)
 Race/Ethnicity, n (%)
  White330 (86)317 (85)98 (83)97 (85)105 (83)105 (88)
  Hispanic19 (5)9 (2)19 (16)15 (13)21 (17)14 (12)
  Asian10 (3)9 (2)0 (0)1 (1)0 (0)0 (0)
  African-American10 (3)11 (3)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)
  Other16 (4)27 (7)1 (1)1 (1)1 (1)1 (1)
 College degree, n (%)228 (59)245 (66)67 (57)72 (63)71 (56)72 (60)
 Annual household income (US$)
  0–59 999134 (35)94 (25)49 (42)34 (30)31 (24)22 (18)
  60 000–99 000115 (30)104 (28)36 (31)36 (32)41 (32)32 (27)
  100 000–199 00088 (23)115 (31)23 (19)29 (25)40 (31)47 (39)
  >200 00022 (6)30 (8)3 (3)10 (9)10 (8)14 (12)
 Health literacy, n (%)
  3rd grade or below0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)1 (1)0 (0)
  4th–6th grade1 (0)3 (1)1 (1)1 (1)0 (0)1 (1)
  7th–8th grade14 (4)29 (8)10 (8)13 (11)3 (2)17 (14)
  High school370 (96)341 (91)107 (91)100 (88)123 (97)102 (85)
General health
 Ever smoked >100 cigarettes, n (%)157 (41)159 (43)57 (48)62 (54)48 (38)55 (46)
 How often drink alcohol
  Do not drink, n (%)104 (27)109 (30)41 (35)31 (27)20 (16)17 (14)
  At least monthly, n (%)134 (35)96 (26)50 (42)47 (41)50 (39)44 (37)
  At least weekly, n (%)143 (37)161 (44)26 (22)35 (31)57 (45)59 (49)
 PSQI, mean (SD)8.6 (2.9)7.7 (2.6)8.6 (2.4)7.9 (2.7)8.1 (2.7)6.9 (2.1)
 GDS, mean (SD)2.3 (2.5)1.9 (2.1)2.6 (2.7)2.0 (2.2)1.2 (1.4)1.2 (1.5)
Diabetes characteristics
 Age at diabetes onset (years), mean (SD)28.9 (16.4)27.2 (13.7)55.3 (11.2)54.3 (13.4)N/AN/A
 Diabetes duration (years), mean (SD)38.0 (16.0)40.3 (13.9)13.4 (9.9)14.5 (12.6)N/AN/A
 Retinopathy, n (%)175 (45)145 (39)7 (6)12 (11)1 (1)1 (1)
 Neuropathy, n (%)155 (40)147 (39)26 (22)30 (26)10 (8)6 (5)
 Nephropathy, n (%)28 (7)31 (8)0 (0)1 (1)1 (1)0 (0)
 Stroke, n (%)30 (8)34 (9)7 (6)13 (11)8 (6)8 (7)
 Myocardial infarction, n (%)44 (11)50 (13)6 (5)16 (14)4 (3)6 (5)
 Severe hypoglycemia n (%)178 (46)191 (51)5 (4)2 (2)N/AN/A
 Diabetic ketoacidosis, n (%)134 (35)78 (21)0 (0)1 (1)N/AN/A
  • Bold signifies p values≤0.05.

  • GDS, Geriatric Depression Scale; N/A, not available; PSQI, Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index; T1D, type 1 diabetes; T2D, type 2 diabetes.