Table 1

Sample characteristics stratified by sex

Whole groupWomenMenP value
n (%)1237630 (51)607 (49)
Demographics
 Age (years), mean (SD)67.8 (6.6)67.6 (6.5)68.0 (6.7)0.23
 Race/Ethnicity, n (%)
  White1052 (85)533 (85)519 (86)
  Hispanic97 (8)59 (9)38 (6)
  Asian20 (2)10 (2)10 (2)
  African-American21 (2)10 (2)11 (2)
  Other47 (4)18 (3)29 (5)0.22
 College degree, n (%)755 (61)366 (58)389 (64)0.03
 Annual household income (US$)
  0–59 999364 (29)214 (36)150 (26)
  60 000–99 000364 (29)192 (32)172 (30)
  100 000–199 000342 (28)151 (26)191 (34)
  >200 00089 (7)35 (6)54 (10)<0.0001
 Health literacy, n (%)
  3rd grade or below1 (0)1 (0)0 (0)
  4th–6th grade7 (1)2 (0)5 (1)
  7th–8th grade86 (7)27 (4)59 (10)
  High school1143 (92)600 (95)543 (89)0.001
General health
 Every smoked >100 cigarettes, n (%)538 (43)262 (42)276 (46)0.19
 How often drink alcohol
  Do not drink, n (%)322 (26)165 (26)157 (26)
  At least monthly, n (%)421 (34)234 (37)187 (31)
  At least weekly, n (%)481 (39)226 (36)255 (43)0.04
 PSQI, mean (SD)8.0 (2.7)8.5 (2.8)7.6 (2.6)<0.0001
 GDS, mean (SD)2.0 (2.3)2.2 (2.4)1.8 (2.1)0.003
 No diabetes, n (%)247 (20)127 (20)120 (20)
 Type 1 diabetes, n (%)758 (61)385 (61)373 (61)
 Type 2 diabetes, n (%)232 (19)118 (19)114 (19)0.99
Diabetes characteristics
 Mean age at diabetes onset (years) (SD)34.4 (18.4)35.1 (19.0)33.7 (17.9)0.23
 Mean diabetes duration (years) (SD)33.1 (17.8)32.2 (18.0)34.1 (17.5)0.09
 Retinopathy, n (%)341 (28)183 (31)158 (28)0.30
 Neuropathy, n (%)374 (30)191 (31)183 (32)0.98
 Nephropathy, n (%)61 (5)29 (5)32 (6)0.49
 Stroke, n (%)100 (8)45 (7)55 (9)0.19
 Myocardial infarction, n (%)126 (10)54 (9)72 (12)0.05
 Severe hypoglycemia n (%)376 (30)183 (29)193 (32)0.29
 Diabetic ketoacidosis, n (%)213 (17)134 (21)79 (13)0.0006
  • Bold signifies p values≤0.05.

  • GDS, Geriatric Depression Scale; PSQI, Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index.