Table 2

Changes in factors from baseline to 24 weeks in the pioglitazone and tofogliflozin groups

Pioglitazone group (n=17)Tofogliflozin group (n=21)Baseline difference
pioglitazone versus tofogliflozin group
Treatment effect pioglitazone versus tofogliflozin group
Baseline24-week treatmentP valueBaseline24-week treatmentP valueP valueMean difference
(95% CI)
P value
Hepatic steatosis and liver test
MRI-PDFF (%)18.04±7.4610.50±4.25<0.0001*17.28±5.6713.16±6.470.0042*0.7218−3.4 (−7.2 to 0.36)0.0750
AST (IU/mL)62.4±7.5434.5±14.10.0014*54.0±6.7838.2±22.90.0096*0.4097−12.2 (−30.3 to 5.9)0.1791
ALT (IU/mL)74.9±22.741.1±10.1<0.0001*84.0±39.660.7±9.10.0115*0.4106−10.6 (−31.3 to 10.1)0.3062
ALP (IU/mL)261.2±86.3212.2±12.20.0012*248.9±70.7232.2±11.00.08070.6311−32.3 (−62.9 to 1.7)0.0389*
GGT (IU/mL)97.6±19.250.9±38.20.0283*66.2±17.248.9±34.90.0093*0.2320−29.3 (−67.1 to 8.5)0.1244
CHE (IU/mL)377.6±48.5367.1±11.60.0846379.4±41.9383.0±10.50.64180.9035−14.1 (−34.3 to 6.1)0.1654
Hepatic fibrosis
MRE-LSM (kPa)3.42±1.463.08±1.080.0226*3.03±0.842.89±0.890.14470.3041−0.2 (−0.5 to 0.1)0.2154
WFA+-M2BP (COI)0.96±0.120.78±0.360.0092*0.80±0.100.66±0.340.0130*0.3122−0.06 (−0.19 to 0.06)0.3164
Type IV collagen 7S (ng/mL)4.09±1.344.02±1.030.84804.34±1.014.01±0.880.25770.51190.2 (−0.4 to 0.8)0.4810
FIB-4 index2.12±1.821.74±0.960.15951.48±0.601.33±0.630.14830.13190.3 (−0.3 to 0.8)0.3948
Glycemic and metabolic parameters
FPG (mg/dL)144.2±41.1123.8±27.00.0564144.5±50.2142.0±49.40.82890.9843−17.8 (−49.5 to 13.8)0.2610
HbA1c ((%(mmol/mol)))7.09±0.19
(54.0±7.3)
6.40±0.18
(46.4±6,6)
0.0003*7.22±0.17
55.4±9.6)
6.82±0.16
(51.1±8.9)
0.0013*0.6320 −0.2 (−0.7 to 0.1)
 (−3.3 (−7.3 to 0.7)
0.1052
Total cholesterol (mg/dL)195.7±35.6200.6±35.70.2724188.9±33.0200.0±42.70.21790.5458−6.2 (−27.4 to 15.0)0.5560
Triglycerides (mg/dL)160.8±57.2117.8±58.50.0093*152.1±63.4159.0±82.10.64230.6639−49.9 (−92.1 to -7.7)0.0219*
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)54.2±16.663.9±18.9<0.0001*56.2±12.259.1±12.70.0441*0.66896.8 (2.3 to 11.2)0.0037*
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL)117.0±7.3116.3±32.40.7916111.4±6.5114.2±32.50.71480.5722−3.5 (−21.0 to 14.0)0.6902
Uric acid (mg/dL)5.72±0.945.49±0.900.24595.70±1.064.81±0.840.0004*0.93170.6 (0.1 to 1.2)0.0336*
High sensitivity CRP2304±22631112.6±891.20.0093*1544±1350843.7±552.10.0209*0.2115−461.7 (−1451.5 to 528.0)0.3498
Oxidative stress, adiponectin, and proketogenic profile
Uric 8-OHdG (ng/mL)16.34±2.4411.81±6.380.113818.58±2.189.39±5.530.0005*0.49724.6 (−2.7 to 11.9)0.2058
Adiponectin (μg/mL)6.39±0.7714.51±7.550.0003*5.00±0.674.86±1.460.11000.1791−7.3 (4.8 to 9.8)0.1052
Acetoacetic acid (μmol/L)34.4±19.135.9±29.90.746621.1±22.465.4±85.00.0363*0.7445−34.9 (−75.8 to 6.1)0.0926
3-Hydroxybutyric acid (μmol/L)64.1±13.879.3±74.10.680962.6±12.0136.4±187.90.0308*0.9349−65.4 (−154.9 to 24.3)0.1476
CK-18 fragment M30 (U/L)586.6±376.0360.0±211.30.0048*735.0±511.9367.5±214.90.0007*0.3260155.9 (−106.2 to 417.9)0.2345
  • Data are presented as mean±SD. *P<0.05

  • *p<0.05.

  • ALP, alkaline phosphatase; ALT, alanine transaminase; AST, aspartate transaminase; CHE, cholinesterase; CK-18, cytokeratin 18; COI, cut off index; CRP, C reactive protein; FIB-4, Fibrosis-4; FPG, fasting plasma glucose; GGT, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low density lipoprotein; LSM, liver stiffness measurement; MRE, magnetic resonance elastography; 8-OHdG, 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine; PDFF, proton density fat fraction; WFA+-M2BP, Wisteria floribunda agglutinin-positive Mac-2 binding protein glycosylation isomer.