Table 1

Baseline characteristics

DemographicsAll (n=127)
Age (years)28.4 (21.6–46.6)
Female gender (%)64 (50.4)
BMI (kg/m2)23.5 (4.4)
Current smoker (%)56 (44.1)
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)127 (22)
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)73 (16)
Temperature (°C)36.5 (35.8–37.0)
Diabetes duration (years)*13.1 (8.9–24.9)
Insulin dose (U/day)*48 (32–72)
Use of MDI (%)*70 (61)
Use of CSII (%)*45 (39)
Use of sensor (%)*12 (10)
Microvascular complications (%)*48 (42)
 Retinopathy (%)*26 (22)
 Nephropathy (%)*29 (25)
 Neuropathy (%)*19 (17)
Macrovascular complications (%)*21 (18)
Cause DKA
 New-onset T1DM (%)12 (9)
 Therapy non-adherence (%)45 (35)
 Infection/Inflammation (%)33 (26)
Laboratory measurements
Hb (mmol/L)8.9 (1.3)
White blood cell count (109/L)18.1 (11.6–24.9)
Platelet count (109/L)333 (100)
CRP (mg/L)9 (4–22)
Creatinine (μmol/L)87 (69–117)
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)82.6 (40)
Sodium (mmol/L)134 (7)
Potassium (mmol/L)5.2 (1.0)
Glucose (mmol/L)32(25-42)
Phosphate (mmol/L)1.70 (1.35–2.70)
Calcium (mmol/L)2.39 (2.26–2.47)
Urea (mmol/L)9.2 (6.0–12.4)
Chloride (mmol/L)93 (9)
Albumin (mmol/L)45 (6)
LDH (U/L)187 (159–236)
ASAT (U/L)23 (15–31)
ALAT (U/L)21 (14–35)
Alkaline phosphatase (U/L)139 (58)
Gamma-GT (U/L)25 (18–46)
Bilirubin total (μmol/L)6 (3–11)
pH (kPa)7.13 (7.02–7.21)
Serum bicarbonate (mmol/L)8.3 (4.2)
Arterial pCO2 (kPa)3.1 (1.2)
Arterial saturation (%)97 (96–98)
Lactate (mmol/L)3.0 (2.0–4.4)
  • Data are presented as number (%), mean (SD) or median (IQR).

  • *Excluding patients with new-onset T1DM DKA.

  • ALAT, alanine aminotransferase; ASAT, aspartate aminotransferase; BMI, body mass index; CRP, C reactive protein; CSII, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion; DKA, diabetic ketoacidosis; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; EMV, Eye opening, best Motor response, best Verbal response; Gamma-GT, gamma glutamyl transferase; Hb, hemoglobin; HbA1c, glycosylated hemoglobin; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; MDI, multiple daily injection; T1DM, type 1 diabetes mellitus.