Table 1

Sociodemographic and health characteristics of 159 731 participants in Cohort of Norway from 1993 to 2004

Casual blood glucose level at baseline
Normal
(<7.8 mmol/L)
Borderline
(7.8–11.0 mmol/L)
High
(>11.0 mmol/L)
P value*Missing†
Women (n=84 005)
No. (%)69 148 (82.3)1152 (1.4)126 (0.2)13 579 (16.2)
Age, mean (SD)48.3 (15.0)58.5 (15.5)64.9 (16.3)<0.00146.8 (15.0)
Marital status, n (%)0.070
 Married/registered partnership41 460 (59.1)680 (59.1)63 (50.0)7195 (53.1)
 Other27 602 (39.9)471 (40.9)63 (50.0)6356 (46.9)
Education, n (%)<0.001
 Basic education17 614 (31.0)431 (48.4)50 (64.9)4854 (36.0)
 Upper secondary education22 627 (39.8)294 (33.0)20 (26.0)4735 (35.1)
 Tertiary education16 547 (29.1)165 (18.5)7 (9.1)3897 (28.9)
Serum glucose, mmol/L, mean (SD)5.1 (0.7)8.6 (0.8)13.8 (2.4)<0.001
Serum total cholesterol, mmol/L, mean (SD)5.7 (1.2)6.1 (1.3)6.3 (1.3)<0.0016.0 (1.3)
Current smoker20 562 (29.7)301 (26.1)22 (17.5)0.0024986 (36.7)
Systolic blood pressure, mean (SD)129.8 (21.1)141.3 (24.1)152.8 (24.6)<0.001130.8 (21.4)
BMI, mean (SD)25.7 (4.4)27.4 (5.1)31.2 (6.2)<0.00124.7 (4.2)
Obesity10 670 (15.5)307 (27.7)57 (52.3)<0.0011452 (10.7)
Time since last meal, mean (SD)1.9 (1.4)1.0 (1.1)1.6 (1.3)<0.0012.2 (1.5)
Endpoints, n (%)
 Acute myocardial infarction1637 (2.4)66 (5.7)13 (10.3)<0.001472 (3.5)
 Stroke2187 (3.2)96 (8.3)19 (15.1)<0.001573 (4.2)
 Cardiovascular death1983 (2.9)109 (9.5)22 (17.5)<0.001539 (4.0)
 All cause death5850 (8.5)243 (21.1)49 (38.9)<0.0011614 (11.9)
Men (n=75 726)
No. (%)61 853 (81.7)1692 (2.2)216 (0.3)11 965 (15.8)
Age, mean (SD)49.6 (15.0)57.5 (14.3)57.7 (14.1)<0.00146.0 (13.9)
Marital status, n (%)<0.001
 Married/cohabitant39 098 (63.4)1235 (73.1)135 (62.5)6652 (55.8)
 Other22 338 (36.3)454 (26.9)81 (37.5)5275 (44.2)
Education, n (%)<0.001
 Basic education11 448 (24.6)423 (35.8)62 (42.5)3494 (29.4)
 Secondary education21 161 (45.4)465 (39.3)56 (38.4)4509 (37.9)
 Tertiary education13 965 (30.0)294 (24.9)28 (19.8)3887 (32.7)
Serum glucose, mmol/L, mean (SD)5.3 (0.8)8.7 (0.8)13.9 (2.5)<0.001
Serum total cholesterol, mmol/L, mean (SD)5.8 (1.1)5.9 (1.1)6.1 (1.2)<0.0016.0 (1.2)
Current smoker17 910 (29.0)553 (32.7)66 (30.6)<0.0014533 (37.9)
Systolic blood pressure, mean (SD)136.3 (17.8)144.7 (21.0)149.0 (21.1)<0.001136,5 (16.7)
BMI, mean (SD)26.3 (3.4)27.2 (4.0)29.3 (5.0)<0.00125.5 (3.3)
Obesity8239 (13.4)369 (22.1)85 (41.2)<0.0011070 (9.0)
Time since last meal, mean (SD)2.0 (1.5)1.0 (1.1)1.6 (1.5)<0.0012.3 (1.6)
Endpoints, n (%)
 Acute myocardial infarction3394 (5.5)145 (8.6)21 (9.7)<0.001821 (6.9)
 Stroke2498 (4.0)131 (7.7)23 (10.7)<0.001590 (4.9)
 Cardiovascular mortality2360 (3.8)130 (7.7)25 (11.6)<0.001510 (4.3)
 All-cause mortality7267 (11.8)398 (23.5)61 (28.2)<0.0011614 (13.5)
  • Number of missing: marital status: 573 (0.4%), education: 28 698 (18.0%), cholesterol: 259 (0.2%), systolic blood pressure: 427 (0.3%), BMI: 774 (0.5%), smoking: 1697 (1.1%), and time since last meal: 7967 (5.0%).

  • *Test for trend by comparing participants with normal, borderline, and high casual blood glucose. Regress for continuous variables and logit/ologit for categorical variables.

  • †Persons with missing data on casual glucose level (before imputation).

  • BMI, body mass index.