Table 2

Clinical characteristics of the various clusters of type 2 diabetes

Clinical phenotypesClustersP value
LLLFD
(n=338)
HLHFD
(n=174)
MLMFD
(n=227)
MLHFD
(n=169)
Basic information
 Age (years)62 (54–68)61 (51–67)60 (53–67)62 (54–67)0.166
 BMI (kg/m2)24.23 (22.49–26.63)24.94 (22.65–27.26)24.80 (22.82–27.31)24.22 (22.56–26.36)0.150
 Duration (years)12 (6–17)14 (7–20)11 (6–18)12 (5–17)0.154
HOMA indices
 HOMA-2%β172.45
(118.08–239.40)
73.20*
(50.95–106.95)
115.70*†
(82.70–155.50)
110.90*†
(71.75–172.00)
<0.001
 HOMA-2%Sensitivity23.40
(16.60–32.83)
26.25
(16.58–38.93)
21.80
(14.90–33.60)
31.90*†‡
(20.50–53.55)
<0.001
 HOMA-2%Insulin resistance4.30
(3.00–6.00)
3.80
(2.58–6.03)
4.60
(3.00–6.70)
3.10*†‡
(1.90–4.90)
<0.001
Clinical measures
 HbA1c (%)7.2
(6.4–8.3)
10.2*
(9.1–11.3)
8.6*†
(7.7–10.0)
8.9*†
(7.5–10.1)
<0.001
 FCP (ng/mL)1.84
(1.30–2.53)
1.43*
(0.97–2.14)
1.73
(1.21–2.62)
1.26*‡
(0.76–1.98)
<0.001
 CP2h (ng/mL)4.47
(2.73–6.56)
2.43*
(1.73–3.88)
4.31
(2.35–6.17)
3.29*‡
(1.89–5.38)
<0.001
 ΔCP2h (ng/mL)2.65
(1.08–4.38)
1.35*
(0.55–2.17)
2.21
(0.88–3.83)
1.89
(0.93–3.41)
<0.001
 SBP (mm Hg)130
(120–140)
130
(120–140)
130
(120–140)
130
(120–140)
0.620
 DBP (mm Hg)78
(70–82)
80
(70–84)
80
(70–84)
78
(70–82)
0.793
 Triglyceride (mmol/L)1.32
(0.92–1.88)
1.55*
(1.12–2.80)
1.67*
(1.13–2.50)
1.27†‡
(0.97–1.94)
<0.001
 HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)1.00
(0.84–1.23)
0.96
(0.82–1.15)
0.97
(0.80–1.17)
1.06†‡
(0.90–1.25)
0.008
 LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)2.51
(1.96–3.22)
2.65
(2.06–3.23)
2.55
(1.95–3.30)
2.75
(1.98–3.35)
0.286
Antidiabetic agents, n (%)
 Metformin153 (45.3)61 (35.1)97 (42.7)51* (30.2)0.004
 Sulfonylurea83 (24.6)22* (12.6)63 (27.8)25*‡ (13.0)<0.001
 Thiazolidinediones18 (5.3)5 (2.9)15 (6.6)8 (4.7)0.400
 Glinides20 (5.9)5 (2.9)14 (6.2)11 (6.5)0.400
 DPP-4 inhibitors32 (9.5)9 (5.2)30 (13.2)11 (6.5)0.025
 AGI132 (39.1)48* (27.6)86 (37.9)29* (17.2)<0.001
 Insulin184 (54.4)162* (93.1)157* (69.2)143*‡ (84.6)<0.001
  • All data are expressed as median with IQR.

  • For clusters, p values are from Kruskal-Wallis test for continuous variables and from χ2 for categorical variables.

  • Duration refers to duration of diabetes.

  • *Significant difference in unpaired (p<0.05), Dunn-Bonferroni test for post-hoc comparisons, compared with cluster 1.

  • †Significant difference in unpaired (p<0.05), Dunn-Bonferroni test for post-hoc comparisons, compared with cluster 2.

  • ‡Significant difference in unpaired (p<0.05), Dunn-Bonferroni test for post-hoc comparisons, compared with cluster 3.

  • AGI, α-glucosidase inhibitor; BMI, body mass index; CP2h, C peptide levels at 2 hours; ΔCP2h, increments of C peptide in plasma levels 120 min; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; DPP-4, Dipeptidyl peptiduse 4; FCP, C peptide variables as fasting C peptide; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin A1c; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; HLHFD, high-level and high-fluctuation diabetes; HOMA, Homeostasis model assessment; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; LLLFD, low-level and low-fluctuation diabetes; MLHFD, moderate-level and high-fluctuation diabetes; MLMFD, moderate-level and moderate-fluctuation diabetes; SBP, systolic blood pressure.