Table 2

The cross-lagged path coefficients in the total sample, with adjustment for covariates

Path coefficients
(IR → Obesity)
Path coefficients
(Obesity → IR)
P value†RMRCFI
β195% CIβ295% CI
BMIHOMA-IR0.074*0.047 to 0.1010.232*0.197 to 0.267<0.0010.0150.990
WCHOMA-IR0.192*0.156 to 0.2280.187*0.153 to 0.2210.8550.0060.996
HCHOMA-IR0.201*0.165 to 0.2370.154*0.120 to 0.1870.0870.0100.961
WHRHOMA-IR0.151*0.113 to 0.1890.080*0.047 to 0.1120.0110.0190.886
BMIHOMA-%β0.051*0.024 to 0.0770.168*0.135 to 0.201<0.0010.0200.989
WCHOMA-%β0.172*0.137 to 0.2070.158*0.126 to 0.1910.6120.0100.995
HCHOMA-%β0.176*0.140 to 0.2110.150*0.118 to 0.1810.3460.0140.962
WHRHOMA-%β0.136*0.098 to 0.1740.047*0.016 to 0.0790.0020.0250.891
  • Covariates include age, sex, smoking, drinking and follow-up years.

  • Insulin, HOMA-IR and HOMA-%β were log-transformed for normal distribution.

  • β1 describes the cross-lagged path coefficient from baseline HOMA-IR or HOMA-%β to follow-up BMI/WC/HC/WHR; β2 describes the cross-lagged path coefficient from baseline BMI/WC/HC/WHR to follow-up HOMA-IR or HOMA-%β.

  • *P<0.05 for β1 and β2 being different from 0.

  • †P value for difference between β1 and β2.

  • BMI, body mass index; CFI, comparative fit index; HC, hip circumference; HOMA-%β, homeostasis model assessment of beta cell function; HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; IR, insulin resistance; RMR, root mean square residual; WC, waist circumference; WHR, waist-to-hip ratio.