Table 1

Participant characteristics among women with gestational diabetes (GDM) and their matched* controls: the NICHD Fetal Growth Studies-Singleton Cohort

CharacteristicsNGDM cases (n=107)Non-GDM controls (n=214)P value
Age, years32130.4±5.730.5±5.4
 Non-Hispanic white25 (23.4%)50 (23.4%)
 Non-Hispanic black15 (14.0%)30 (14.0%)
 Hispanic41 (38.3%)82 (38.3%)
 Asian/Pacific Islander26 (24.3%)52 (24.3%)
Enrollment BMI, kg/m232127.8±6.225.6±5.30.0005
Family history of diabetes32140 (37.4%)48 (22.4%)0.003
Alcohol use before pregnancy32161 (57.0%)137 (64.0%)0.22
Smoking before pregnancy3214 (3.7%)1 (0.5%)0.02
Fasting glucose†, mg/dL31391.92±14.683.38±7.9<0.001
Fasting insulin†, pmol/L313135.41±204.666.87±95.2<0.001
Fasting C-peptide†, nmol/L3130.92±0.70.60±0.4<0.001
Fasting HbA1c†, %3135.18±0.54.95±0.30.002
  • Values are n (%) or mean±SD.

  • P values were not shown for matching variables: age and race/ethnicity.

  • *Matching factors: age (±2 years), race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic or Asian/Pacific Islander) and the gestational week of blood collection (±2 weeks).

  • †Glycemic biomarkers were measured in fasting samples at 15–26 weeks (visit 1). Sample size for fasting glucose was 98 cases and 213 controls and for fasting insulin, C-peptide and HbA1c was 99 cases and 212 controls. Values were log transformed before fitting into linear mixed effect models.

  • BMI, body mass index; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; NICHD, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.