Table 1

Main characteristics of the included studies

Study, locationQuality rating by JBIStudy design (Follow-up Period)Setting/ Sample populationSources of missed appointmentsOutcomeOperationalized definition of the outcomeSources of associated factorsFactors that were statistically significant or mentioned in the article
Self-reportChart recordsOne appointment no-showMissed appointment in a period of timePatient characteristicsHealthcare system and provider factorsPatient care appraisal factors
Buys, 2019, AL, USA48 Quan-High; Qual- HighMixed-Methods (22 months)A free DM clinic/ n=348 (cohort n=348, interview N=17)vLost to follow-up to the most recent appointmentvMedical records, interviewvvv
Garcia Diaz, 2017, Spain34 HighRetrospective cohort study (58 months)An endocrinology clinic/ n=639vAppointment non-attendanceEver no-show in the study periodMedical recordsv
Gibson, 2017, USA35 HighRetrospective cohort study (24 months)Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Household Component and Diabetes Care Survey/ n=3982vMissed annual DM preventive care servicesNot received a foot examination or a blood cholesterol check over a 2 year periodQuestionnaire (Diabetes Care Survey)v
Heydarabadi, 2017, Iran45 HighQualitativeHealth centers/ n=26 (pts N=12, healthcare workers n=9, family n=3)vAppointment attendanceEver no-show in the pastQualitative interviewvv
Kurasawa, 2016, Japan37 MediumRetrospective cohort study (38 months)A DM outpatient clinic/ n=879 (16,026 appointments)vMissed appointmentvEMRvv
Low, 2016, Singapore38 MediumRetrospective cohort study (19–43 months)A DM center/ N=1645vMissed most recent appointment/ Lost to follow-upvNumber of no-show divided by total number of scheduled in the study period (0%, 0%–30%,>30%)Medical recordsvv
Chew, 2015, Malaysia33 HighRetrospective cohort study (12 months)National DM registry from 303 public health centers/ N=57 780vFollow-up non-attendanceNo-show & did not turn up at the current health facility>1 yearMedical recordsvv
Thongsai, 2015, Thailand42 MediumProspective cohort study (24 weeks)DM outpatient clinic/ N=442Not reportedAppointment non-attendancevQuestionnairev
Parker, 2012, CA, USA40 HighRetrospective cohort study (12 months)Primary care clinics from one health system/ N=12 957vPoor appointment keeping rateNumber of no-show divided by total number of scheduled in 12 months (0%–33%,>33%)EMR & parent-study survey (DISTANCE)vv
Bowser, 2009, VA, USA32 MediumProspective cohort study (12 weeks)A free clinic/ N=183Not reportedMissed appointmentv (& 24 hours cancellation)Questionnaires (RAND-36, PHQ-9, ADDQOL, DES-SF)v
Simmons, 2007, New Zealand47 HighCase-control27 419 household in three districts in Auckland/ N=89 (cases n=37; control n=52)vDefaulterMissed three quarterly appointments (not seen in the previous 10 months)Questionnairev
Masuda, 2006, Japan39 HighRetrospective cohort study (12 months)A DM clinic/ N=160vDropoutNot visited the clinic>12 months since their last visitEMR, qualitative interviewv
Ando, 2005, Japan31 MediumProspective cohort study (24 months)Unclear/ N=50Not reportedClinic attendanceDiscontinued for>6 months during 2 year study periodMedical record, questionnaire (Rorschach, Yatabe-Guilford personality test)v
Wong, 2005, Torres Straits Island, Australia46 MediumQualitativeRegional DM registry/ N=67 (11 focus groups n=37, interview n=30)vMissed appointmentEver no-show in the pastFocus group; interviewvv
Karter, 2004, CA, USA36 HighRetrospective cohort study (12 months)PCP clinics from one health system/ N=84 040 (DM registry)vMissed appointment rateNumber of no-show divided by total number of scheduled in 12 months (0%, 0%–30%,>30%)EMRvv
Rosen, 2003, CT, USA41 HighRetrospective cohort study (24 months)A VA primary care clinic/ N=79 malevMissed appointmentNumber of missed PCP appointment in the previous yearQuestionnaire (neuropsychological test, MMSE)v
Khoza, 1995, UK44 LowCross-sectionalA DM clinic at a rural hospital/ N=30vAppointment keepingEver no-show in the pastQuestionnaire, medical records, observationvv
Belgrave, 1994, DC, USA43 MediumCross-sectionalA DM outpatient clinic/ N=78 African AmericanvAppointment keeping patternsSelf-reported 5-point scale (always keep to never keep)Questionnaire (measure of social support)v
  • (n=7),32 35 36 40 41 43 48 Japan (n=3),31 37 39 Australia (n=1),46 Iran (n=1),45 Malaysia (n=1),33 New Zealand (n=1),47 Singapore (n=1),38 Spain (n=1),34 Thailand (n=1)42 and UK (n=1).44

  • ADDQOL, Aduit of Diabetes-Depedent Quality of Life; DES-SF, The Diabetes Empowerment Scale-Short Form; DM, diabetes mellitus; EMR, electronic medical record; MMSE, Mini-Mental State Examination; PCP, Primary Care Provider; PHQ-9, Patient Health Questionnaire-9; RAND-36, The RAND-36 Measure of Health-Related Quality of Life; VA, Veterans Affairs.