Table 2

Summary of the factors examined in each study by three categories

Study, yearPatient characteristicsHealthcare system and provider factorInterpersonal factor
Buys et al,
Sociodemographic: age, sex, race/ethnicity
Health status: hospitalized or emergency room between appointments
Risk/Protective behavior: number of scheduled appointments annually
Transportation: no transportation*
Other social issues: change phone number constantly*; no permanent address*
Others: forgetness*
System: no reminder*; unable to reach a staff via phone* Staff: rude staff*
Garcia Diaz et al,
Sociodemographic: younger†, sex
Health status: high HbA1c†, insulin users†, fewer DM drugs per day†, high albuminuria†, non-hypothyroidism†, high LDL†, high TG†, T2DM duration, family history of DM, waist circumference
Risk/Protective behavior: smoker†, did not attend therapeutic education session†, physical activity
Sociodemographic: age, sex, race/ethnicity, education (missing data†), employment, income, reside in deprived area, insurance type, marital status
Health status: DM therapy type, DM-related complications (kidney†), hypertension, hyperlipidemia, coronary heart disease, functional limitations, depression, BMI
Risk/Protective behavior: smoking status
Social support: family size
Heydarabadi et al,
Sociodemographic: unemployment*, busy schedule or work-related constraints*, low income*, high healthcare cost#
Health status: physical disability*, vision problem*
Disease knowledge, belief or attitude: low disease knowledge*, denial of disease*
Transportation: no transportation*, long distance*
Social support: lack of family support*
Others: hot weather*, poor road condition*, local customs (herbal medicine*, women unable to get out alone*)
System: no reminder*, long wait time*, administrative bureaucracy*, lack of resources (no medication*, lack of laboratory*, no proper incentive for healthcare workers*, no communication channels with the clinic*) Provider: physician lack of respect*, poor communication due to language barrier of providers*
Kurasawa et al,
Sociodemographic: sex%, age%
Health status: HbA1c%, HDL%, LDL%, TG%, T-Cho%, comorbidities%, prescribed medications%, medication dosage and frequency per day%, total amount of medication a day%
Risk/Protective behavior: frequency of clinic visits%
Transportation: distance and time-distance between home and clinic%
Others: weather%
System: interval between scheduling and appointment%, day of the week of the appointment%
Low et al,
Sociodemographic: younger†, male†, racial/ethnicity (minority-Indian†, Malay†)
Health status: hospitalization/emergency room visit between appointments, referral sources
Risk/Protective behavior: less number of scheduled appointments annually†, more missed appointment previously†
System: interval between appointment (61–90 days†), appointment month (January–June†), type of facility (public vs private)
Chew et al,
Sociodemographic: older†, male†, foreigner†
Health status: high HbA1c†, more DM complications†, longer DM duration†, no hypertension†, lower blood pressure reading†, longer hypertension duration†, no hyperlipidemia†, high LDL†, lower BMI†
System: type of facility† (hospitals with specialists, hospitals without specialists, clinics with specialist, clinics without specialists)
Sociodemographic: age, sex, marital status
Health status: longer DM duration†
Disease belief or attitude: disease cannot be controlled†
Social support: family size
Others: religion
Parker et al,
Sociodemographic: younger*, sex, non-Caucasian†, less educated†, limited English proficiency†, health literacy, unemployment†, fewer assets†, income, live in a deprived area†, higher copy insurance type†
Health status: younger when diagnosed with DM†, lower comorbidity score†, high LDL†, higher BP†
Risk/Protective behavior: missed appointments previously†, no assigned primary care provider†
Social support: social support
Provider: lower trust in physician†
Bowser et al,
Sociodemographic: age, female†, health literacy, income level
Health status: depression
Disease knowledge, belief or attitude: low social functioning†, lower self-efficacy†
Simmons and Clover,
Sociodemographic: age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, employment, income, not on social benefit†, marital status
Health status: HbA1c, on prescribed medication†, DM duration, no severe DM-related retinopathy†, LDL, BMI, BP
Disease knowledge, belief or attitude: DM knowledge, emotional and readiness to change
Transportation: transportation, distance between home and clinic
Social support: social support, family size
Masuda et al,
Sociodemographic: younger†, sex, occupation
Health status: lower HbA1c†, lower fasting plasma glucose†, DM therapy type (non-medication†), DM diagnosed at other place†, DM complications
Risk/Protective behavior: smoking, alcohol use
Transportation: distance between home and clinic
Ando et al,
Sociodemographic: age, sex, education, marital status
Health status: DM therapy type, BMI, fasting plasma glucose
Risk/Protective behavior: smoker†
Others: Yatabe-Guilford test (lower general activity†, higher depression†), Rorschach (higher negative self-attitude†)
Wong et al,
Sociodemographic: older*, work-related constraints*
Transportation: no transportation*
Others: forgetness*
System: no reminder*, long wait time*
Karter et al,
Sociodemographic: middle age†, sex, reside in a poverty area†, higher copay insurance type†
Health status: higher HbA1c†, oral medication only†, use of insulin†, lower comorbidity score†, depression, hospitalization/emergency room visit between appointments
Risk/Protective behavior: less blood glucose self-monitoring per day†, number of scheduled appointments annually
Provider: type of provider
Rosen et al,
Sociodemographic: age, sex, non-Caucasian†, education, employment
Health status: DM therapy type, lower MMSE†
Khoza and Kortenbout,
Sociodemographic: unemployment*
Transportation: no transportation*
Others: bad weather*
System: long wait time*
Belgrave and Lewis,
Social support: less social support†
  • *Qualitative report; %included in the development of a predictive model.

  • †Statistically significant (p<0.05).

  • BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; MMSE, Mini-Mental State Examination; T-Cho, total cholesterol; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus; TG, triglyceride.