Table 4

Adjusted changes (%) in plasma indices of insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function in newborns in relation to changes in maternal (24–28 weeks of gestation) or cord plasma OxLDL cholesterol concentration and OxLDL to total LDL ratio in singleton pregnancies

Adjusted change (%)§ in newborns
Per log unit increase in:Glucose:insulin ratioProinsulin:insulin ratio
Maternal plasma OxLDL19.2 (2.6, 38.5)*15.3 (−0.4, 33.5)
 OxLDL:LDL ratio15.3 (−0.1, 32.9)18.5 (3.3, 35.9)*
Cord plasma OxLDL25.8 (12.8, 40.3)‡19.0 (6.8, 32.9)†
 OxLDL:LDL ratio22.4 (10.1, 36.2)‡17.0 (5.3, 30.0)†
  • Regression coefficients in bold, P<0.05.

  • *P<0.025.

  • †P<0.01.

  • ‡P<0.001.

  • §Adjusted for maternal glucose tolerance (plasma glucose concentration in 1-hour 50 g oral glucose tolerance test at 24–28 weeks of gestation, SD score), gestational hypertension, bacterial vaginosis or any treatment for infection during pregnancy, prepregnancy body mass index (SD score), ethnicity, parity, age, smoking, alcohol use, mode of delivery and duration of labor, fasting status at delivery, infant sex, gestational age and birth weight (z score). The adjusted % change was calculated from the regression coefficient of the dependent variable (y) in log scale per log unit increase in the independent variable (x), because the regression coefficient (β) represents the proportion of change in y in the original scale: log y1−log y0=β, then log (y1/y0)=β, thus y1/y0=eβ, and the percentage change is (eβ−1)×100%.

  • LDL, low-density lipoprotein; OxLDL, oxidized low-density lipoprotein.