Adjusted change (%)§ in newborns | ||

Per log unit increase in: | Glucose:insulin ratio | Proinsulin:insulin ratio |

Maternal plasma OxLDL | 19.2 (2.6, 38.5)* | 15.3 (−0.4, 33.5) |

OxLDL:LDL ratio | 15.3 (−0.1, 32.9) | 18.5 (3.3, 35.9)* |

Cord plasma OxLDL | 25.8 (12.8, 40.3)‡ | 19.0 (6.8, 32.9)† |

OxLDL:LDL ratio | 22.4 (10.1, 36.2)‡ | 17.0 (5.3, 30.0)† |

Regression coefficients in bold, P<0.05.

*P<0.025.

†P<0.01.

‡P<0.001.

§Adjusted for maternal glucose tolerance (plasma glucose concentration in 1-hour 50 g oral glucose tolerance test at 24–28 weeks of gestation, SD score), gestational hypertension, bacterial vaginosis or any treatment for infection during pregnancy, prepregnancy body mass index (SD score), ethnicity, parity, age, smoking, alcohol use, mode of delivery and duration of labor, fasting status at delivery, infant sex, gestational age and birth weight (z score). The adjusted % change was calculated from the regression coefficient of the dependent variable (y) in log scale per log unit increase in the independent variable (x), because the regression coefficient (β) represents the proportion of change in y in the original scale: log y

_{1}−log y_{0}=β, then log (y_{1}/y_{0})=β, thus y_{1}/y_{0}=e^{β}, and the percentage change is (e^{β}−1)×100%.LDL, low-density lipoprotein; OxLDL, oxidized low-density lipoprotein.