Table 1

Characteristics of study populations (excluding baseline diabetes)

VariablesSouth Asians (n=6676)Pima Indians (n=1852)
Age, years33.0 (28.0, 39.0)27.4 (22.3, 34.2)
Age categories (%)
 20–2413.339.3
 25–3440.638.6
 35–4446.122.2
Men (%)43.838.5
Current smoker (%)11.333.3
Current drinker (%)13.875.2
Family (parental) history of diabetes (%)28.769.3
BMI, kg/m224.4 (21.1, 27.8)33.8 (29.4, 39.0)
BMI categories, kg/m2 (%)
 <25.054.37.9
 25.0–30.031.819.9
 ≥3013.972.2
Waist, cm82.5 (74.0, 91.0)107 (96, 119)
HbA1c, mmol/mol37 (33, 40)34 (31, 38)
HbA1c, %5.5 (5.2, 5.8)5.3 (5.0, 5.6)
FPG, mmol/L5.1 (4.77, 5.44)5.1 (4.77, 5.44)
Trigly, mmol/L1.22 (0.88, 1.73)1.30 (0.92, 1.39)
LDLc, mmol/L2.64 (2.18, 3.16)2.66 (2.55, 3.19)
HDLc, mmol/L1.09 (0.93, 1.27)1.09 (0.93, 1.29)
SBP, mm Hg114.0 (105.0, 123.5)116 (108, 126)
DBP, mm Hg77.5 (71.5, 84.5)70 (62, 76)
Fasting insulin, pmol/L53.5 (36.1, 76.4)132.0 (76.4, 222.2)
HOMA-IR, µIU/mL* mmol/L1.8 (1.1, 2.6)4.3 (2.5, 7.7)
HOMA-B, µIU/mL/mmol/L91.7 (63.4, 133.2)243 (135.4, 394.7)
  • Data are presented as median (IQR: p25, p75) or %; HbA1c glycated hemoglobin.

  • Diabetes defined as FPG≥ 7.00 mmol/L (126 mg/dL) or HbA1c ≥ 48 mmol/mol (6.5 %) or self-reported/physician diagnosed diabetes or medication.

  • *Insulin in CARRS only in Delhi and Chennai samples (n=3900).

  • BMI, body mass index; CARRS, Center for Cardiometabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia Study; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; Family history, diabetes mellitus in father or mother; FPG, fasting blood glucose; HDLc, high density lipoprotein cholesterol; HOMA-B, homeostasis model assessment of β-cell dysfunction; HOMA-B, (20×insulin)/(glucose − 3.5) or (20*I0(µIU/mL)/G0 (mmol/L) − 3.5); HOMA-IR, fasting insulin (µU/L) × fasting glucose (nmol/L)/22.5 or (I0(µIU/mL) * G0 (mmol/L)/22.5); HOMA-IR, homeostatic model assessment of Insulin resistance; LDLc, low density lipoprotein cholesterol; SBP, systolic blood pressure; Trigly, triglycerides.