Table 1

Clinical characteristics at baseline among participants with available data (N=2590)

AllPlaceboMetforminLifestyleP value
Treatment2590867865858
Age50.8 (44.4, 58.3)50.4 (45.0, 57.9)50.7 (43.5, 59.2)51.0 (44.9, 57.9)0.508
Sex0.441
 Male898 (34.7)292 (33.7)294 (34.0)312 (36.4)
 Female1692 (65.3)575 (66.3)571 (66.0)546 (63.6)
Ethnicity0.290
 Non-Hispanic white1395 (53.9)464 (53.5)445 (51.4)486 (56.6)
 African American510 (19.7)170 (19.6)170 (19.7)170 (19.8)
 Hispanic428 (16.5)144 (16.6)154 (17.8)130 (15.2)
 Asian American116 (4.5)37 (4.3)49 (5.7)30 (3.5)
 American Indian141 (5.4)52 (6.0)47 (5.4)42 (4.9)
 HbA1c (%)5.9 (5.6, 6.2)5.9 (5.6, 6.2)5.9 (5.6, 6.2)5.9 (5.6, 6.2)0.702
 Fasting glucose (mg/dL)105.0 (100.0, 111.0)105.0 (100.0, 111.0)105.0 (100.0, 111.0)104.0 (100.0, 111.0)0.748
 BMI (kg/m2)32.6 (28.9, 37.2)32.8 (28.8, 37.5)32.5 (28.9, 36.9)32.6 (29.1, 37)0.795
 Waist (cm)103.8 (94.8, 113.2)103.5 (94.1, 113.2)103.2 (95.1, 113)104.4 (94.9, 113.2)0.779
 Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)122.0 (113.0, 133.0)122.0 (113, 132.0)122.0 (113.0, 133.0)123.5 (113.0, 133.8)0.429
Family history of diabetes0.786
 No803 (31.0)270 (31.1)261 (30.2)272 (31.7)
 Yes1787 (69.0)597 (68.9)604 (69.8)586 (68.3)
GDM history0.645
 No1450 (56.0)491 (56.6)485 (56.1)474 (55.2)
 Yes242 (9.3)84 (9.7)86 (9.9)72 (8.4)
 Not applicable (male)898 (34.7)292 (33.7)294 (34.0)312 (36.4)
Blood pressure medication0.569
 No2166 (83.6)733 (84.5)715 (82.7)718 (83.7)
 Yes424 (16.4)134 (15.5)150 (17.3)140 (16.3)
 2-hour glucose (mg/dL)162.0 (149.0, 178.0)163.0 (149.0, 178.0)162.0 (150.0, 178.0)163.0 (149.0, 179.0)0.801
 Insulinogenic index (uU/mg)103.8 (66.7, 158.2)105.8 (66.3, 163.6)104.8 (67.2, 160.3)101.8 (66.7, 152.3)0.729
 IFI (mL/uU)4.2×10−2 (0, 6.2×10−2)4.2×10−2 (0, 6.2×10−2)4.4×10−2 (0, 6.2×10−2)4.2×10−2 (0, 6.2×10−2)0.600
 Triglycerides (mg/dL)144.0 (102.0, 204.0)149.0 (105.0, 206.5)142.0 (98.0, 201.0)142.0 (100.2, 201.0)0.096
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL)203.0 (179.0, 227.8)202.0 (177.0, 227.5)205.0 (180.0, 229.0)202.5 (178.2, 226)0.541
 LDL-C (mg/dL)124.0 (102.0, 145.0)123.0 (101.0, 146.5)125.0 (102.0, 145.0)122.0 (103.0, 144.0)0.720
 HDL-C (mg/dL)44.0 (37.0, 52.0)43.0 (37.0, 51.0)45.0 (37.0, 53.0)44.0 (38.0, 53.0)0.018
  • The table shows the median and 25th and 75th percentiles for continuous variables and counts and percentages for categorical variables.

  • P values are calculated using Kruskal-Wallis rank sum tests (for continuous variables) and Χ2 tests (for categorical variables) to assess mean differences between the three treatment arms.

  • BMI, body mass index; GDM, gestational diabetes mellitus; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; IFI, reciprocal of the fasting insulin level; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.