Table 1

Characteristics of study patients

Demographic and clinical characteristicsDental health status
Male47 (66.2%)Number of teeth22.4±6.8
Age, years59.6±13.0Periodontal diagnosis*
SmokingNever34 (47.9%)Healthy3 (4.2%)
Former28 (39.4%)Gingivitis0 (0%)
Current9 (12.7%)Periodontitis stage I1 (1.4%)
BMI (kg/m2)26.6±4.5Periodontitis stage II9 (12.7%)
≥2528 (39.4%)Periodontitis stage III24 (33.8%)
<2543 (60.6%)Periodontitis stage IV34 (47.9%)
VFA (cm2)98.9±46.3PISA (mm2)254.2±240.8
≥10040 (56.3%)PESA (mm2)930.8±385.5
<10031 (43.7%)PPD≥7 mm (%)1.2±3.1
HbA1c (%)9.4±1.9PPD 4–6 mm (%)10.0±10.4
FPG (mg/dL)158.7±55.4PPD≤3 mm (%)88.8±12.7
Duration of diabetes (years)11.1±8.4BOP (%)22.8±17.2
NephropathyNormoalbuminuria45 (63.4%)Full-mouth plaque control record (%)45.6±25.1
Microalbuminuria23 (32.4%)
Macroalbuminuria3 (4.2%)
RetinopathyAbsence of retinopathy45 (63.4%)
Non-proliferative retinopathy16 (22.5%)
Proliferative retinopathy7 (9.9%)
Angina myocardial infarction15 (21.1%)
Cerebrovascular disorder1 (1.4%)
Hypertension41 (57.8%)
Dyslipidemia47 (66.2%)
Total cholesterol (mg/dL)181.0±41.1
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL)108.8±33.8
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)45.9±11.3
Triglyceride (mg/dL)160.8±115.2
Urine albumin (mg/day)70.0±220.5
serum CPR (ng/ml)1.6±0.8
Urine CPR (µg/day)71.5±48.0
C-peptide index1.1±0.7
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)77.6±23.9
  • Data are number of subjects (%) or mean±SD.

  • *Criteria for staging according the description of classification Papapanou et al.25

  • BMI, body mass index; BOP, bleeding on probing; CPR, connecting peptide immunoreactivity; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; FPG, fating plasma glucose; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; PESA, periodontal epithelial surface area; PISA, periodontal inflamed surface area; PPD, probing pocket depth; VFA, visceral fat area.