Table 1

Maternal and child characteristics of participants

Participants included (n=123)Participants excluded (n=972)P value
Infant variables
Gestational age (weeks)39.0±1.038.7±1.60.003
Sex of child (male), n (%)68 (55.3)504 (51.9)0.473
Birth weight (g)3149±3673071±4760.035
Ethnicity, n (%)
 Chinese60 (48.8)538 (55.3)0.001
 Malay49 (39.8)242 (24.9)
 Indian14 (11.4)192 (19.8)
Maternal variables
Maternal education, n (%)
 Primary/no education4 (3.3)41 (4.2)0.014
 Secondary45 (36.6)251 (25.8)
 Diploma/technical education50 (40.7)336 (34.6)
 University and above23 (18.7)331 (34.0)
 Missing data1 (0.8)15 (1.5)
Maternal age (years)29.4±5.530.6±5.10.013
Antenatal EPDS score8.46±4.277.36±4.540.013
Maternal first trimester BMI (kg/m2)22.2±3.523.8±4.9<0.001
Maternal 26–28 weeks’ BMI (kg/m2)25.0±3.426.4±4.6<0.001
Antenatal fasting glucose (mmol/L)4.34±0.394.35±0.460.947
Antenatal 2-hour glucose (mmol/L)6.09±1.436.57±1.450.001
Diagnosed with GDM, n (%)14 (11.4)185 (19.0)0.033
  • Data presented as mean±SD.

  • BMI, Body Mass Index; EPDS, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale; GDM, gestational diabetes mellitus.