Table 1

Maternal characteristics by periconception glycosylated hemoglobin

VariableOverall sample (N=351)≤7.4%
≤57 mmol/mol
(n=236)
7.5%–9.4%
58–79 mmol/mol
(n=68)
9.5%–11.4%
80–101 mmol/mol
(n=31)
≥11.5%
≥102 mmol/mol
(n=16)
P value*
Maternal age (years)32.3±5.7†32.3±5.932.0±5.732.3±5.533.4±4.10.84
Nulliparous175 (49.9)119 (50.4)33 (48.5)15 (48.4)8 (50.0)0.99
Body mass index (kg/m2)34.7±9.134.3±9.436.1±8.634.6±8.035.5±9.40.57
Race/ethnicity0.01
 White non-Hispanic103 (29.3)73 (30.9)12 (17.7)10 (32.3)8 (50.0)
 Black non-Hispanic98 (27.9)54 (22.8)34 (50.0)8 (25.8)2 (12.5)
 Hispanic98 (27.9)71 (30.1)14 (20.6)8 (25.8)5 (31.3)
 Asian12 (3.4)10 (4.2)1 (1.5)1 (3.2)0 (0.0)
 Other40 (11.4)28 (11.9)7 (10.3)4 (12.9)1 (6.3)
Public insurance211 (70.1)151 (75.9)36 (58.1)18 (66.7)6 (46.2)0.01
Smoking89 (26.0)58 (25.2)15 (22.4)10 (34.5)6 (37.5)0.44
Diabetes type0.34
 Type 1127 (36.2)92 (39.0)22 (32.4)10 (32.3)3 (18.8)
 Type 2224 (63.8)144 (61.0)46 (67.7)21 (67.7)13 (81.3)
  • *P value is for analysis of variance, χ2 or Fisher’s exact tests.

  • †Data presented as mean±SD for continuous variables and n (%) for categorical variables.