Table 1

Characteristics of participants at baseline

AllDevelopment of diabetes (−)Development of diabetes (+)P value
N19 41218 996416
Age (years)42.16 (6.05)42.1 (6.06)44.8 (4.97)<0.0001
Sex (male/female)15 909/350315 513/3483396/20<0.0001
BMI at baseline (kg/m2)21.54 (2.04)21.52 (2.04)22.50 (1.81)<0.0001
SBP (mm Hg)116.11 (13.16)115.98 (13.1)121.63 (14.50)<0.0001
DBP (mm Hg)72.49 (10.15)72.39 (10.12)76.84 (10.55)<0.0001
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL)119.58 (29.93)119.36 (29.758)129.72 (34.64)<0.0001
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)62.19 (15.13)62.3 (15.14)57.43 (14.18)<0.0001
Triglycerides (mg/dL)101.13 (76.79)100.5 (76.58)131.94 (80.08)<0.0001
Glucose (mg/dL)91.57 (8.17)91.30 (7.93)103.65 (9.762)<0.0001
Uric acid (mg/dL)5.69 (1.33)5.68 (1.33)6.21 (1.39)<0.0001
Smoking (none/past/current)10 363/2579/647010 205/2530/6261158/49/209<0.0001
Eating speed (fast/normal/slow)5660/12 163/15895504/11 932/1570156/241/19<0.0001
Skipping breakfast (+/−)4133/15 2794018/14 978115/3010.001
Alcohol drinker (+/−)5192/14 2205039/13 957153/263<0.0001
Physical exercise (+/−)2958/16 4542889/16 10769/3470.44
CV of BMI (%)2.22 (0.96)2.21 (0.96)2.30 (1.04)0.037
  • Data are presented as mean (SD) or absolute number.

  • BMI, body mass index; CV, coefficient of variation; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; SBP, systolic blood pressure.