Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the study population

Non-exposed (1975 and later)Fetal-exposed (1959–1962)Childhood-exposed (1949–1958)Adolescence/adult-exposed (1921–1948)Non-exposed (1963–1974)
Age in 2014≤3952–5556–6566–9340–51
n256232586214611
Men, %43.042.743.5*50.5*37.8
Current smoker, %14.322.324.2*23.419.4
Rural/urban residence, %34.8/65.2*65.5/34.5*77.5/22.5*71.5/28.5*53.2/46.8
BMI category, %
 Overweight22.6*24.922.127.826.6
 Obesity21.4*41.8*40.8*34.932.6
Hypertension, %12.4*40.8*54.3*67.1*26.3
Dyslipidemia, %17.231.9*32.8*29.0*20.8
FPG, mmol/L5.1±0.5*5.5±0.6*5.6±0.6*5.6±0.5*5.3±0.5
HbA1c, %5.0±0.4*5.3±0.5*5.3±0.4*5.4±0.4*5.1±0.5
SBP, mm Hg117±15*130±19*134±20*141±20*125±18
DBP, mm Hg73±11*80±13*80±13*79±1278±13
TG, mmol/L1.05 (0.77–1.55)1.41 (1.03–2.02)1.39 (0.99–1.88)1.25 (0.95–1.67)1.18 (0.87–1.71)
LDL, mmol/L2.65±0.62*3.07±0.81*3.02±0.69*2.94±0.712.86±0.63
HDL, mmol/L1.40±0.28*1.46±0.311.48±0.321.49±0.341.48±0.30
  • Continuous variables are expressed as mean±SD for variables of normal distribution and as median (IQR) for variables of skewed distribution. Categorical variables are described as percentages.

  • The Kruskal-Wallis test and analysis of variance were used for continuous variables with skewed distribution and normal distribution, and the Pearson’s χ2 test was used for categorical variables.

  • *P<0.05, significantly different from that in the non-exposed group (1963–1974).

  • BMI, body mass index; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; FPG, fasting plasma glucose; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; SBP, systolic blood pressure; TG, triglycerides.