Table 4

Association between self-management activities and glycemic control

VariablesModel 1*Model 2*Model 3*
Recommended strategies
Physical activity1.160 (0.890–1.512)1.184 (0.865–1.621)
Self-monitoring of blood glucose (≥1 × day)1.245 (0.777–1.994)1.221 (0.705–2.113)
Lost weight in the past year1.099 (0.709–1.704)0.954 (0.570–1.596)
Dietary/weight loss strategies
Non-adherent with medicines0.280 (0.109–0.717)0.272 (0.109–0.677)
Salt/sodium reduction2.098 (1.192–3.695)1.937 (1.183–3.172)
Diabetic diet0.315 (0.169–0.589)0.315 (0.174–0.569)
Diabetes education (<5 years) or dietitian3.440 (1.164–10.161)3.480 (1.281–9.453)
Ate less food1.330 (0.735–2.409)
Low-calorie diet4.564 (1.658–12.562)4.048 (1.637–10.009)
Low-fat diet1.910 (0.875–4.169)2.149 (1.032–4.474)
Skipped meals1.138 (0.459–2.824)
Low-carbohydrate diet1.281 (0.603–2.722)
More fruits/vegetables1.828 (0.839–3.986)2.001 (0.986–4.058)
Changed eating habits0.377 (0.159–0.893)0.340 (0.150–0.772)
Low-sugar diet0.827 (0.380–1.797)
  • *Controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education (more than high school), duration of disease (<10, 10–20, >20 years), body mass index, antidiabetic medications (none, oral only, any insulin), and needs equipment to walk.