Table 1

Simulation model base case incremental results over a lifetime horizon

Empagliflozin versus canagliflozinEmpagliflozin versus dapagliflozinEmpagliflozin versus SoC
CV and renal event rates per 100 PYs
 CV death−0.56−0.58−1.29
 Non-fatal MI0.210.03−0.33
 Non-fatal stroke0.380.240.24
 Hospitalization for HF0.05−0.08−1.02
 Progression of albuminuria−0.16−0.86
 Composite renal outcome−0.020.02−0.64
 Hospitalization for UA0.04
 Transient ischemic attack−0.04
 Revascularization−0.20
 Non-CV death0.140.180.32
AE rates per 100 PYs
 Genital mycotic infection−0.06−1.471.16
 Acute kidney injury−0.14−0.11−0.23
 Lower limb amputation−0.55
 Bone fracture−0.29
 Major hypoglycemic event0.08
Undiscounted life expectancy (years)0.801.091.77
Discounted QALY0.380.500.84
Discounted costs over patients’ lifetime
 Drug acquisition cost, US$1675291731 539
 CV/renal event management cost, US$13−1558−4.070
 AE management cost, US$−199415770
 Total cost, US$−306151727 539
ICER, US$/LYDominates139815 524
ICER, US$/QALYDominates305432 848
  • AE, adverse event; CV, cardiovascular; HF, heart failure; ICER, incremental cost-effectiveness ratio; LY, life year; MI, myocardial infarction; PY, patient-year; QALY, quality-adjusted life year; SoC, standard of care; UA, unstable angina.