Table 1

Anthropometrics, clinical status, and laboratory tests of the study population

Group (n)Healthy controlsMetabolic syndromeT2DP value
Female gender, n (%)9 (82)14 (67)7 (50)0.24*
Age (years) (mean±SD)41±1043±9,648±8,80.17
Body mass index (kg/m2) (mean±SD)29.7±838.2±7.537.6±5.30.0066*†‡
Waist circumference (cm) (mean±SD)87±14105±13106±130.0009*†‡
Hypertension, n (%)0 (0)12 (50)5 (36)0.01*
Hypercholesterolemia, n (%)2 (18)12 (57)9 (64)0.05*
Statins (%)0/2 (0)1/12 (8)7/9 (78)0.006*
Glycemia (mg/dL) (mean±SD)83±692±8118±32<0.0001‡§
Insulinemia (U/mL) (mean±SD)9.7±3.617.9±7.820±10.50.0069†‡
HOMA-IR (mean±SD)1.99±0.84±1.75.8±3.20.003†‡§
HbA1c (%) (mean±SD)5.1±0.35.6±0.36.7±1.2<0.0001‡§
OGIS120 (mean±SD)444±56330±71312±52<0.0001†‡
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) (mean±SD)177±32197±54168±430.18
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) (mean±SD)54±1341±1142±110.006†‡
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL) (mean±SD)105±30123±4496±360.12
Triglycerides (mg/dL) (mean±SD)86±26166±82175±1020.01†‡
ATP III criteria (mean±SD)0.7±0.473.6±0.593.6±0.76<0.001†‡
hsCRP (mg/L) (mean±SD)1.3±0.66.6±4.36.7±4.70.01†‡
  • Statistical analysis performed with one-way analysis of variance and Tukey post-test to compare pairs of groups.

  • *Denotes χ2 statistical analysis. Significant difference was considered when the p value is <0.05.

  • †Denotes significant difference between ATP III 0–1 vs ATP III 3–5.

  • ‡Denotes significant difference between ATP III 0–1 vs T2D.

  • §Denotes significant difference between ATP III 3–5 vs T2D.

  • ATP III, Adult Treatment Panel III; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; HOMA-IR, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance; hsCRP, high-sensitivity C reactive protein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; OGIS120, Oral Glucose Sensitivity; T2D, type 2 diabetes.