Table 3

Liver enzymes and histological analysis of healthy controls and subjects with metabolic syndrome and T2D

Healthy controlsMetabolic syndromeT2DP value
ATP III 0–1ATP III 3–5Any ATP III
(n=11)(n=21)(n=14)
Liver enzymes
 Aspartate aminotransferase (mg/dL) (mean±SD)22±624±828±100.14
 Alanine aminotransferase (mg/dL) (mean±SD)19±734±2039±180.02*
Liver biopsy
 Normal, n (%)7 (64)5 (24)1 (7)0.0016†
 Steatosis, n (%)3 (27)7 (33)1 (7)
 NASH, n (%)1 (9)9 (43)12 (86)
Steatosis percentage (mean±SD)9.1±12.226.6±25.537.9±28.70.01*
Ballooning (mean±SD)0.09±0.30.47±0.61.07±0.620.0002*‡
Lobular inflammation (mean±SD)0.27±0.60.57±0.61.21±0.80.003*‡
Fibrosis (mean±SD)0.09±0.30.48±0.61.07±0.920.002*‡
NAS (mean±SD)0.82±1.42.3±1.93.9±2.20.001*‡
SAF score (mean±SD)0.64±12.19±1.993.79±2.30.008*‡
  • Statistical analysis was performed with one-way analysis of variance and Tukey post-test to compare pairs of groups.

  • *Denotes significant difference between ATP III 0–1 vs T2D.

  • †Denotes χ2 statistical analysis. A significant difference was considered when the p value was <0.05.

  • ‡Denotes significant difference between ATP III 3–5 vs T2D.

  • ATP III, Adult Treatment Panel III; NAS, Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Activity Score; NASH, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis; SAF, Steatosis, Inflammatory Activity, and Fibrosis; T2D, type 2 diabetes.