Table 2

Plasma cytokine levels of healthy controls and subjects with metabolic syndrome and T2D

Group (n)Healthy controlsMetabolic syndromeT2DP value
ATP III 0–1
(n=13)
ATP III 3–5
(n=24)
Any ATP III
(n=13)
Adiponectin (pg/mL) (mean±SD)51.9±35.615.6±9.220±14.90.001*†
Resistin (pg/mL) (mean±SD)35.3±14.544.6±15.736.6±11.80.15
PAI-1 (pg/mL) (mean±SD)32.9±14.756±21.955.23±17.10.005*†
NGF (pg/mL) (mean±SD)1.8±0.62.2±0.83.1±2.10.058
IL-6 (pg/mL) (mean±SD)3.1±1.36.9±4.77.1±5.30.03*
Leptin (pg/mL) (mean±SD)31.7±26.352.6±33.345.3±25.50.17
IL-8 (pg/mL) (mean±SD)6.5±3.55.6±2.16.1±3.10.66
HGF (pg/mL) (mean±SD)185.5±95.9263.3±117.2321.3±119.20.01†
MCP-1 (pg/mL) (mean±SD)162±30.8219.2±84204.2±73.80.13
TNF-α (pg/mL) (mean±SD)2.4±0.753.52±1.523.46±0.830.03*
IL-1β (pg/mL) (mean±SD)0.68±0.250.79±0.350.8±0.370.62
  • Statistical analysis performed with one-way analysis of variance and Tukey post-test to compare pairs of groups. Significant difference was considered when the p value was <0.05.

  • *Denotes significant difference between ATP III 0–1 vs ATP III 3–5

  • †Denotes significant difference between ATP III 0–1 vs T2D.

  • ATP III, Adult Treatment Panel III; HGF, hepatocyte grow factor; IL, interleukin; MCP-1, macrophage chemoattractant protein-1; NGF, nerve growth factor; PAI-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 ; T2D, type 2 diabetes; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor alpha.