Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the study group

Missing values (%)Entire groupRemissionNon-remissionP value
n (%), mean±SDn (%), mean±SDn (%), mean±SD
Age, years047.4±10.0846.6±10.251.7±8.7<0.001
Sex0
 Female4970 (61.7)3891 (62.6)1079 (58.5)Ref
 Male3087 (38.3)2320 (37.4)767 (41.5)0.001
Weight, kg0122.7±21.74123.6±22.01119.7±20.50<0.001
Waist circumference, cm1370 (17.0)129.5±13.21129.7±13.3128.7±12.770.011
BMI, kg/m2042.2±5.7442.5±5.841.2±5.4<0.001
Diabetes duration03.7±4.592.7±3.67.2±5.8<0.001
Glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, mmol/mol1068 (13.3)59.0±17.3356.7±16.567.3±17.5<0.001
Median number of antidiabetic drugs01 (1–2)*1 (0–2)*2 (1–2)*<0.001
Insulin treatment02308 (28.6)669 (11.6)1177 (51.0)<0.001
Obesity-related disease0
 Dyslipidemia2527 (31.4)1663 (26.8)864 (46.8)<0.001
 Dyspepsia/GERD1031 (12.8)761 (12.3)270 (14.6)0.007
 Depression1297 (16.1)986 (15.9)311 (16.8)0.318
 Sleep apnea1529 (19.0)1146 (18.5)383 (20.7)0.027
 Hypertension4546 (56.4)3259 (52.5)1287 (69.7)<0.001
 Cardiovascular comorbidity917 (11.4)612 (9.9)305 (16.5)<0.001
Education55 (0.7)
 Primary education ≤9 years1606 (19.9)1214 (19.7)392 (21.4)0.219
 Secondary education4762 (59.1)3671 (59.5)1091 (59.5)Ref
 Higher education ≤3 years838 (10.4)659 (10.7)179 (9.8)0.323
 Higher education >3 years796 (9.9)623 (10.1)173 (9.4)0.463
Disposable income86 (1.1)
 <20th percentile2239 (27.8)1715 (27.9)524 (28.8)0.285
 20th–50th percentile2520 (31.3)1963 (31.9)557 (30.6)Ref
 50th–80th percentile2254 (28.0)1757 (28.6)497 (27.3)0.965
 >80th percentile958 (11.9)714 (11.6)244 (13.4)0.035
Residence31 (0.4)
 Large city or municipality2734 (33.9)2047 (33.1)687 (37.2)Ref
 Medium-sized town or municipality3061 (38.0)2390 (38.7)671 (36.4)0.004
 Small town, urban area, rural municipality2231 (27.7)1744 (28.2)487 (26.4)0.007
Heritage18 (0.2)
 Swedish-born, Swedish descendant6072 (75.4)4727 (76.3)1345 (72.9)Ref
 Swedish-born, non-Swedish descendant338 (4.2)267 (4.3)71 (3.8)0.621
 Born outside Sweden1629 (20.2)1200 (19.4)429 (23.3)<0.001
  • *Median (interquartile range).

  • BMI, body mass index; GERD, gastroesophageal reflux disease; Ref, reference.