Table 1

Participant characteristics by diabetes status

ControlT1DP value
N55129
Age (years)43±1347±120.054
Women23 (42)53 (41)1
Diabetes duration (years)26±11
Normoalbuminuria100 (77)
Microalbuminuria5 (4)
Macroalbuminuria24 (19)
Urine albumin:creatinine ratio (mg/g creatinine)0.8 (0.3–5.3)
Non-smokers35 (80)114 (91)0.074
Body Mass Index (kg/m2)25.1±3.626.6±4.40.027
Heart rate (beats/min)59±865±120.001
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)125±14132±170.008
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)62±978±9<0.001
HbA1c (% (mmol/mol))5±0 (33±2)8±3 (64±12)
Hemoglobin (mmol/L)8.9±0.88.4±1.30.012
Creatinine (µmol/L)78±1477±320.763
Cholesterol (mmol/L)4.8±0.94.6±0.80.131
Baroreflex sensitivity (ms/mm Hg)13 (8–18)9 (5–15)0.003
  • Data are presented as n (%), mean±SD and median (quartile 1–quartile 3). Categorical data were analyzed with χ2 test and Fisher’s exact test when appropriate. Quantitative data were analyzed with Student’s t-test. Normoalbuminuria was defined as urine albumin of <30 mg/24 hours or <30 mg/g creatinine in two out of three consecutive measurements. Microalbuminuria was defined as urine albumin between 30 and 300 mg/24 hours or between 30 and 300 mg/g creatinine in two out of three consecutive measurements, and macroalbuminuria was defined as urine albumin of >300 mg/24 hours or >300 mg/g creatinine in two out of three consecutive measurements.

  • HbA1C, hemoglobin A1c; T1D, type 1 diabetes mellitus.