Table 3

Glycemic control and safety parameters in patients aged >75 years with HI/NPH vs insulin analogs (follow-up)


HI/NPH
n=1.984
BIA
n=1.852
P value
HbA1c, %7.3 (7.25 to 7.36)7.4 (7.32 to 7.42)0.057
HbA1c, mmol/mol56.3 (55.7 to 56.9)57.1 (56.5 to 57.7)0.057
Fasting blood glucose, mmol/L8.4 (8.2 to 8.6)8.4 (8.3 to 8.6)0.849
Total daily insulin dose, IU/kg/day0.296 (0.281 to 0.311)0.239 (0.224 to 0.254)<0.001
Prandial to total insulin ratio, %70.07 (71.59 to 98.52)82.76 (39.63 to 74.17)<0.001
Hospitalization per patient-year, n0.8 (0.7 to 0.9)0.7 (0.7 to 0.8)0.145
Length of stay per patient-year, days16.1 (15.7 to 16.5)16.3 (15.8 to 16.7)0.533
<HbA1c median and no severe hypoglycemia* or hypoglycemia with coma†, % of patients48.651.50.086
Severe hypoglycemia*
 Patients with events, %2.82.4
 Rate per 100 patient-years4.40 (2.2 to 8.8)4.07 (2.0 to 8.8)0.881
Hypoglycemic coma†
 Patients with events, %2.83.0
 Rate per 100 patient-years3.26 (1.2 to 9.0)3.64 (1.2 to 10.8)0.885
Diabetic ketoacidosis‡
 Patients with events, %0.30.1
 Rate per 100 patient-years0.28 (0.02 to 3.37)0.05 (0.04 to 0.7)0.363
  • Data shown as LS mean (95% CI).

  • Bold numbers indicate p-values <0.05.

  • *Defined as an event requiring assistance by another person to actively administer carbohydrates, glucagon or other resuscitative actions.

  • †Defined as loss of consciousness or occurrence of seizures.

  • ‡Defined as pH <7.3 and/or bicarbonate <15 mmol/mol or hospitalization for diabetic ketoacidosis.

  • BIA, basal insulin analogs; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; HI, human insulin; IU, international unit; LS, least squares means; NPH, neutral protamine Hagedorn.