Table 2

Impact of HCV infection on diabetes risk between 1990–2015 in British Columbia Hepatitis Testers Cohort, using multivariable Fine-Gray subdistribution proportional hazards models

CovariateaHR (95% CI),
PS-matched dataset*
aHR (95% CI),
PS-weighted dataset†
HCV positive2.32 (2.20 to 2.45)2.29 (2.17 to 2.42)
Male sex1.16 (1.10 to 1.23)1.15 (1.09 to 1.21)
Age at HCV diagnosis (years)
 <251 (ref)1 (ref)
 25–341.82 (1.51 to 2.19)1.71 (1.42 to 2.05)
 35–443.18 (2.67 to 3.79)2.95 (2.48 to 3.51)
 45–545.81 (4.88 to 6.92)5.49 (4.62 to 6.52)
 ≥559.11 (7.62 to 10.89)8.57 (7.19 to 10.22)
Ethnicity
 Other1 (ref)1 (ref)
 East Asian1.26 (1.12 to 1.41)1.30 (1.16 to 1.46)
 South Asian2.46 (2.20 to 2.74)2.48 (2.22 to 2.77)
Material deprivation quintiles
 Q1 (most privileged)1 (ref)1 (ref)
 Q21.11 (1.01 to 1.23)1.12 (1.02 to 1.24)
 Q31.18 (1.08 to 1.30)1.17 (1.07 to 1.28)
 Q41.14 (1.04 to 1.25)1.13 (1.04 to 1.24)
 Q5 (most deprived)1.18 (1.08 to 1.29)1.17 (1.07 to 1.27)
Social deprivation quintiles
 Q1 (most privileged)1 (ref)1 (ref)
 Q21.07 (0.97 to 1.18)1.01 (0.92 to 1.12)
 Q30.99 (0.90 to 1.09)0.96 (0.87 to 1.05)
 Q41.01 (0.92 to 1.11)0.97 (0.88 to 1.06)
 Q5 (most deprived)0.95 (0.87 to 1.04)0.92 (0.84 to 1.00)
Obesity2.42 (2.11 to 2.77)2.49 (2.17 to 2.86)
HBV positive1.15 (0.93 to 1.41)1.14 (0.93 to 1.40)
HIV positive1.50 (1.09 to 1.89)0.99 (0.81 to 1.19)
Mood and anxiety disorder1.15 (1.09 to 1.22)1.18 (1.11 to 1.25)
Alcohol use disorder1.23 (1.14 to 1.33)1.11 (1.03 to 1.20)
Injection drug use1.38 (1.27 to 1.50)1.05 (0.97 to 1.14)
  • *The propensity score (PS)-matched dataset was created by matching individuals with HCV infection with individuals without infection with a caliper of 0.1 at a 1:1 ratio without replacement. PS was estimated based on age at HCV diagnosis, duration of follow-up, sex, material/social deprivation quintiles, HBV/HIV infection, mood and anxiety disorders, obesity, alcohol use disorder and injection drug use.

  • †The PS-weighted dataset used inverse probability weights (IPW) estimating the average treatment effect on the treated (ATT). PS were estimated based on age at HCV diagnosis, duration of follow-up, sex, material/social deprivation quintiles, HBV/HIV infection, mood and anxiety disorders, obesity, alcohol use disorder and injection drug use.

  • aHR, adjusted hazard ratios; CI, confidence interval; HBV, hepatitis B virus; HCV, hepatitis C virus; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; PS, propensity scores; Q, quintile.