Table 2

Multiple linear regression model with rate of change of eGFR (% change in eGFR per year) as a response variable for all DM

% change in eGFR per yearMultivariate model 1Multivariate model 2Multivariate model 3Multivariate model 4
Values available (%)3848/4464 (86.2)3733/4464 (83.6)2936/4464 (65.7)2908/4464 (65.1)
R-squared (adjusted), %13.1310.369.8017.55
VariableCoeff95% CIP valueCoeff95% CIP valueCoeff95% CIP valueCoeff95% CIP value
Constant−4.80−5.73 to −3.86<0.001−1.58−3 to −0.160.03−1.66−2.14 to −1.18<0.001−2.02−3.69 to −0.360.017
LNuACR (mg/mmol)−0.55−0.62 to −0.48<0.001−0.36−0.47 to −0.24<0.001
HbA1c (mmol/mol)0.010.01 to 0.02<0.0010.010 to 0.020.003
Baseline eGFR (per 10 mL/min/1.73 m2)0.200.16 to 0.25<0.001
ALP (U/L)−0.01−0.01 to 0<0.001−0.01−0.01 to 00.001
ALT (U/L)0.010.01 to 0.02<0.0010.010 to 0.020.036
Cholesterol (mmol/L)−0.03−0.13 to 0.070.557−0.11−0.24 to 0.020.103
HDL (mmol/L)0.720.48 to 0.96<0.0010.540.26 to 0.83<0.001
Free T4 (pmol/L)−0.02−0.06 to 0.010.206−0.04−0.08 to 00.081
TSH (mIU/L)−0.08−0.12 to −0.04<0.001−0.07−0.12 to −0.02)0.006
Age (per 10 years)−0.29−0.39 to −0.19<0.001−0.24−0.33 to −0.14<0.001
LN duration of DM (years)−0.01−0.08 to 0.050.724
BMI (kg/m2)−0.01−0.02 to 0.010.572
SBP (per 10 mm Hg)−0.16−0.23 to −0.08<0.001−0.07−0.16 to 0.010.102
DBP (per 10 mm Hg)0.40.26 to 0.53<0.0010.40.25 to 0.56<0.001
Number of antihypertensives−0.56−0.67 to −0.44<0.001−0.35−0.48 to −0.23<0.001
Male0.15−0.07 to 0.360.181
Non-Caucasian−0.03−0.98 to 0.930.956
Type 1 DM0.43−0.37 to 1.230.291
Type 2 DM0.38−0.41 to 1.170.346
ACEi/ARB0.60.31 to 0.89<0.0010.520.2 to 0.840.002
Adj SD BMI−0.02−0.14 to 0.10.7
Adj SD SBP−0.09−0.13 to −0.06<0.001−0.03−0.06 to 00.043
Adj SD DBP−0.02−0.08 to 0.050.604
Adj SD HbA1c0−0.02 to 0.020.697−0.02−0.04 to 00.067
LN adj SD uACR−0.48−0.55 to −0.41<0.001−0.17−0.27 to −0.070.001
Adj SD cholesterol−0.32−0.66 to 0.020.062−0.29−0.62 to 0.040.084
Adj SD HDL2.71.26 to 4.15<0.001
  • Multivariate model 1: relevant biochemical and urinary indices; multivariate model 2: relevant clinical indices; multivariate model 3: variability indices; multivariate model 4: stepwise regression using relevant biochemical, urinary, clinical and variability indices. Statistically significant p-values are highlighted in bold.

  • ACEi, ACE inhibitor; Adj SD, adjusted SD; ALP, alkaline phosphatase; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; BMI, body mass index; Cholesterol, total cholesterol; Coeff, coefficient; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; DM, diabetes mellitus; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; Free T4, thyroxine; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LN, log-normalized; SBP, systolic blood pressure; TSH, thyroid stimulating hormone; uACR, urine albumin to creatinine ratio.