Table 1

Clinical characteristics of the study participants

Total
(n=284)
Male
(n=178)
Female
(n=106)
Age, year60 (52–65)58 (50–64)62 (57–65)**
Duration, year11 (5–16)11 (5–16)11 (6–17)
SBP, mm Hg132 (121–141)132 (122–142)132 (120–140)
DBP, mm Hg80 (75–88)81 (75–90)80 (75–85)*
BMI, kg/m224.9±2.925.1±2.824.7±3.2
Saliva 1,5-AG, μg/mL0.133 (0.089–0.204)0.132 (0.089–0.203)0.136 (0.087–0.207)
Serum 1,5-AG, μg/mL3.25 (1.60–6.60)2.85 (1.40–5.90)3.95 (2.00–9.18)*
HbA1c, %8.4 (7.3–9.8)8.6 (7.4–9.9)8.3 (7.2–9.5)
GA, %20.8 (17.4–25.4)20.7 (17.7–25.7)20.8 (16.8–24.6)
FPG, mmol/L7.1 (5.9–8.5)7.1 (5.9–8.5)7.2 (5.8–8.6)
PG30, mmol/L11.0±3.011.1±2.810.7±3.2
2hPG, mmol/L12.6±3.512.6±3.312.5±3.7
FCP, ng/mL1.71 (1.08–2.46)1.78 (1.25–2.47)1.55 (1.00–2.42)
CP30, ng/mL2.59 (1.67–3.61)2.69 (1.91–3.57)2.28 (1.42–3.78)
2hCP, ng/mL3.88 (2.52–6.15)4.07 (2.87–6.00)3.66 (2.15–6.44)
Cr, μmol/L61 (52–73)68 (60–77)51 (46–59)**
eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2103 (94–110)100 (91–108)105 (99–113)**
TC, mmol/L4.6±1.14.5±1.14.7±1.0
TG, mmol/L1.62 (1.21–2.24)1.62 (1.28–2.22)1.62 (1.12–2.36)
HDL-C, mmol/L1.04 (0.88–1.23)0.99 (0.85–1.14)1.13 (0.93–1.38)**
LDL-C, mmol/L2.8±1.02.8±1.02.8±0.9
Antidiabetic therapy, n (%)
 OHA therapy84 (29.6)51 (28.6)s33 (31.1)
 Insulin therapy126 (44.4)82 (46.1)44 (41.5)
 OHA+insulin therapy74 (26.0)45 (25.3)29 (27.4)
  • Data were expressed as mean±SD, median (IQR) or n (percentage).

  • OHA therapy refers to those treated with OHA only; insulin therapy refers to those treated only on insulin.

  • *P<0.05 and **p<0.01 with male vs female.

  • 1,5-AG, 1,5-anhydroglucitol; BMI, body mass index; CP30, 30 min C-peptide; Cr, serum creatinine; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; FCP, fasting C-peptide; FPG, fasting plasma glucose; GA, glycated albumin; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin A1c; 2hCP, 2-hour C-peptide; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; 2hPG, 2 hour postload glucose; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; OHA, oral hypoglycemic agents; PG30, 30 min postload glucose; SBP, systolic blood pressure; TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglyceride.