Table 1

Sample characteristics used to measure healthcare utilization outcomes

Sample demographic characteristics for outcome measures2011–20132014–2018
55–6465–7455–6465–74
(A) Total newly detected diabetes (305 726 patients aged 55–74 years old during 2011–2018)73 47956 37190 94884 928
 % from socially deprived census tracts41.934.334.728.3
 Sex: % female50.250.247.648.0
 Race: % white65.271.969.875.7
 Race: % black22.015.716.911.4
 Race: % Asian3.23.32.62.8
 Race: % mixed0.00.00.00.0
 Race: % missing9.69.110.710.1
 Ethnicity: % Hispanic11.98.19.56.9
 Ethnicity: % missing18.120.320.821.7
(B) Total with prevalent diabetes and relevant medical prescriptions (67 083 patients aged 55–74 years old during 2011–2018)34 83132 252
 % from socially deprived census tracts44.137.6
 Sex: % female51.049.9
 Race: % white62.059.9
 Race: % black15.711
 Race: % Asian1.71.6
 Race: % mixed0.30.3
 Race: % missing6.15.2
 Ethnicity: % Hispanic5.44.1
 Ethnicity: % missing21.519.7
  • The pre-ACA period is 2011–2013; the ACA period is 2014–2018. For medical management of diabetes, patients with prevalent diabetes were studied (sample is the same before and during the ACA period).

  • ACA, Affordable Care Act.