Table 1

Baseline characteristics of overall cohort

No diabetesDiabetes
Characteristics(N=6651)(N=1890)P value
Age (years)57.210.161.59.8<0.001
Ethnicity<0.001
 Malay216532.6%62332.9%
 Indian191628.8%86345.7%
 Chinese257038.6%40421.4%
Men317547.7%88746.9%0.536
BMI (kg/m2)25.04.626.74.6<0.001
Systolic BP (mm Hg)137.821.614622.2<0.001
Diastolic BP (mm Hg)78.710.678.110.20.029
HbA1c (%)5.80.58.01.8<0.001
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)5.61.05.11.2<0.001
HDL (mmol/L)1.33.41.20.3<0.001
LDL (mmol/L)3.50.93.11.0<0.001
Blood glucose (mmol/L)5.61.210.75.1<0.001
Duration of diabetes (years)8.38.7
Therapy for diabetes
 Diet only1056.4%
 Insulin only80.5%
 Oral medication only76646.8%
 Oral medication and insulin915.6%
Hypertension359854.2%145176.9%<0.001
Hyperlipidaemia249937.6%108859.4%<0.001
Retinopathy/chronic kidney disease84312.9%82343.5%<0.001
Current smoking111116.7%23412.4%<0.001
Current alcohol5828.8%1357.2%0.027
Estimated GFR, mL/min/1.73m28618.180.222.9<0.001
Albumin:creatinine ratio*331861561031<0.001
  • Data presented are mean and SD, or count and proportion for continuous and categorical variables respectively.

  • *Albumin creatinine ratio available in 4841 and 1256 participants without and with diabetes, respectively.

  • BMI, body mass index; BP, blood Pressure; GFR, glomerular filtration rate; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; HDL, High-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein.