Table 2

Univariate analyses for potential predictors associated with outcome 1 (all recurrent foot ulcers) and outcome 2 (all recurrent plantar foot ulcers)

Potential predictorUlcer recurrence at any foot sitePlantar foot ulcer recurrence
OR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P value
Age (years)0.977 (0.956 to 0.999)0.0420.974 (0.950 to 0.998)0.038
Males1.299 (0.775 to 2.180)0.3211.032 (0.567 to 1.880)0.917
Body mass index (kg/m2)0.982 (0.941 to 1.026)0.4180.997 (0.948 to 1.049)0.920
Caucasian1.064 (0.434 to 2.607)0.8920.774 (0.252 to 2.379)0.654
Type of diabetes
 Type 1ReferenceReference
 Type 20.938 (0.544 to 1.620)0.8800.869 (0.464 to 1.629)0.661
 Years of diabetes1.001 (0.985 to 1.017)0.9230.999 (0.980 to 1.017)0.881
 HbA1c (%)1.003 (0.989 to 1.017)0.6901.008 (0.992 to 1.025)0.329
 Retinopathy1.242 (0.787 to 1.962)0.3521.250 (0.732 to 2.136)0.414
 Nephropathy1.024 (0.579 to 1.812)0.9341.244 (0.652 to 2.374)0.507
 Dialysis1.419 (0.197 to 10.212)0.7281.116 (0.114 to 10.900)0.925
 Smoking or history of smoking0.997 (0.630 to 1.579)0.9911.365 (0.791 to 2.356)0.264
 Consumption of alcohol1.315 (0.809 to 2.135)0.2691.879 (1.024 to 3.448)0.042
 Walking aid1.487 (0.903 to 2.447)0.1191.604 (0.912 to 2.820)0.101
 Living alone1.231 (0.763 to 1.986)0.3940.907 (0.515 to 1.598)0.736
Level of education
 LowReference0.163Reference0.516
 Medium1.367 (0.787 to 2.374)0.2681.177 (0.612 to 2.262)0.625
 High1.714 (0.978 to 3.002)0.0601.462 (0.765 to 2.794)0.251
 Employed0.994 (0.585 to 1.687)0.9820.709 (0.369 to 1.364)0.303
 Custom-made footwear1.582 (0.958 to 2.612)0.0731.472 (0.808 to 2.684)0.207
 Walking barefoot at home1.134 (0.708 to 1.816)0.6020.922 (0.529 to 1.607)0.774
 Adherence to self-care1.089 (0.924 to 1.282)0.3091.141 (0.939 to 1.388)0.185
 At-home foot temperature monitoring0.626 (0.395 to 0.992)0.0460.814 (0.476 to 1.390)0.451
Care center
 University medical centerReference0.152Reference0.045
 Community hospital0.729 (0.424 to 1.252)0.2520.592 (0.322 to 1.088)0.091
 Podiatry practice0.543 (0.292 to 1.008)0.0530.404 (0.192 to 0.849)0.017
Peripheral neuropathy
 MildReferenceReference
 Severe6.699 (1.976 to 22.711)0.0024.250 (0.983 to 18.375)0.053
Peripheral artery disease
 Grade 1ReferenceReference
 Grade 21.103 (0.685 to 1.777)0.6870.803 (0.454 to 1.422)0.452
Foot deformity
 AbsentReference0.060Reference0.113
 Mild0.698 (0.221 to 2.204)0.5400.747 (0.175 to 3.193)0.694
 Moderate1.444 (0.514 to 4.056)0.4861.495 (0.412 to 5.417)0.541
 Severe2.292 (0.656 to 8.009)0.1942.745 (0.630 to 11.956)0.179
History of amputation
 AbsentReference0.005Reference0.044
 Lesser toe(s)1.424 (0.652 to 3.111)0.3751.032 (0.397 to 2.685)0.949
 Hallux or more proximal2.805 (1.506 to 5.223)0.0012.277 (1.186 to 4.373)0.013
 Minor lesions at entry3.066 (1.908 to 4.925)0.0012.659 (1.532 to 4.616)0.001
Plantar location of previously healed ulcer
 Non-plantarReferenceReference
 Plantar1.497 (0.938 to 2.389)0.0912.667 (1.545 to 4.603)0.001
 Months since healing of previous ulcer0.949 (0.926 to 0.973)0.0010.951 (0.921 to 0.983)0.003
 Months duration of last two ulcers1.025 (0.999 to 1.051)0.0591.024 (0.998 to 1.052)0.072
SF–36 Short Form Health Survey
 Physical functioning0.997 (0.989 to 1.005)0.4640.997 (0.988 to 1.007)0.595
 Role functioning/physical1.000 (0.995 to 1.005)0.9821.001 (0.995 to 1.007)0.720
 Role functioning/emotional0.998 (0.992 to 1.003)0.4061.003 (0.996 to 1.010)0.415
 Energy/fatigue0.997 (0.986 to 1.007)0.5490.998 (0.986 to 1.011)0.806
 Emotional well-being0.993 (0.980 to 1.006)0.2841.001 (0.986 to 1.016)0.874
 Social functioning0.995 (0.985 to 1.004)0.2701.000 (0.989 to 1.011)0.958
 Pain1.000 (0.991 to 1.008)0.9910.998 (0.989 to 1.008)0.766
 General health0.994 (0.983 to 1.005)0.2941.004 (0.991 to 1.018)0.531
 EuroQol visual analog scale0.999 (0.984 to 1.014)0.8981.007 (0.990 to 1.025)0.417
 Social economic score1.044 (0.857 to 1.272)0.6700.986 (0.784 to 1.241)0.903