Table 2

Fatty acid concentrations at gestational weeks 11–14 in women with and without GDM diagnosis later in pregnancy, also stratified by BMI*

Non-GDMGDMP valueMean adjusted differenceNon-GDMGDMP value
Median (10th–90th percentile)Median (10th–90th percentile)
Total μg/mLμg/mL (95% CI)†Ratio %‡
All(n=726)(n=127)(n=726)(n=127)
SFA906 (712–1166)966 (747–1230)<0.0137 (1 to 75)34 (32–36)33 (31–36)0.39
MUFA688 (521–928)784 (562–1041)<0.0175 (40 to 110)26 (23–29)27 (24–31)<0.01
PUFA n-6955 (793–1178)989 (813–1188)0.0221 (−11 to 52)36 (32–40)35 (31–38)<0.01
PUFA n-3128 (94–177)134 (99–180)0.05−0,3 (−8 to 7)4.7 (3.7–6.2)4.6 (3.8–5.9)0.38
EPA+DHA93 (66–135)97 (73–133)0.11−2 (−8 to 5)3.4 (2.5–4.8)3.4 (2.6–4.5)0.40
Total fatty acids2681 (2174–3392)2898 (2287–3632)<0.01133 (33 to 233)
BMI <25 kg/m2(n=396)(n=44)(n=396)(n=44)
SFA887 (705–1153)941 (730–1282)0.1745 (−11 to 100)34 (32–36)34 (31–36)0.54
MUFA660 (516–906)753 (522–1034)<0.0188 (38 to 138)25 (22–29)27 (23–30)<0.01
PUFA n-6947 (789–1178)969 (769–1203)0.1824 (−23 to 72)36 (32–40)35 (32–38)0.02
PUFA n-3126 (93–178)133 (99–176)0.143 (−8 to 15)4.7 (3.8–6.2)4.7 (3.8–6.0)0.99
EPA+DHA92 (64–133)98 (73–136)0.142 (−7 to 12)3.4 (2.5–4.8)3.5 (2.6–5.0)0.87
Total fatty acids2615 (2127–3340)2773 (2178–3701)0.04161 (14 to 307)
BMI >25 kg/m2(n=324)(n=77)(n=324)(n=77)
SFA918 (727–1186)973 (766–1231)0.0130 (−23 to 83)34 (31–36)33 (31–36)0.68
MUFA717 (535–962)822 (570–1092)<0.0160 (12 to 109)26 (23–30)27 (24–32)<0.01
PUFA n-6963 (796–1180)990 (814–1191)0.0716 (−27 to 59)36 (32–39)35 (30–38)0.01
PUFA n-3131 (95–181)134 (104–182)0.34−3 (−13 to 6)4.7 (3.7–6.2)4.6 (3.8–5.9)0.30
EPA+DHA96 (67–136)95 (74–132)0.52−5 (−12 to 3)3.5 (2.6–4.7)3.3 (2.5–4.5)0.27
Total fatty acids2769 (2210–3412)2944 (2323–3632)<0.01103 (−35 to 240)
  • Bold text indicates a statistically significant difference with a p-value ≤ 0.05.

  • *BMI information is missing for 12 women.

  • †Adjusted for age, prepregnancy BMI, weekly weight gain and smoking during pregnancy when all women are included. No adjustment for prepregnancy BMI when stratifying for BMI.

  • ‡Relative FA concentrations as a ratio of total FA.

  • BMI, body mass index; DHA, docosahexaenoic acid; EPA, eicosapentaenoic acid; FA, fatty acids; GDM, gestational diabetes mellitus; MUFA, monounsaturated fatty acids; PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids; SFA, saturated fatty acids.