Table 1

Characteristics of the women in PREWICE II

AllNon-GDMGDMP value*
(n=853)(n=726)(n=127)
Age, years30.3±4.929.9±4.832.4±5.5<0.01
Prepregnancy BMI†, kg/m225.8±5.725.4±5.428.4±6.8<0.01
BMI ≥25 kg/m*, %474560
Total weight gain‡, kg12.3±5.512.8±5.29.6±6.1<0.01
Weight gain, kg/week§0.49±0.20.50±0.20.39±0.2<0.01
Parity¶, %
 0444541
 1363540
 ≥22020190.60
Education**, %
 Elementary school111113
 Technical/High school302931
 University education353628
 Higher academic2424280.36
Marital status††, %
 Married242326
 Living together717269
 Single5550.77
Smoking‡‡, %
 Before pregnancy: yes1414170.39
 During pregnancy: yes5460.55
Family history of diabetes§§, %7614<0.01
  • Data are presented as means±SD or ratios.

  • *Differences between non-GDM and GDM using t-test for equality of means, Pearson’s χ2 test and Mann-Whitney U test for two independent samples. Bold text indicates a statistically significant difference with a p-value ≤ 0.05.

  • †Information on prepregnancy BMI is missing for 22 women.

  • ‡Information on weight gain is missing for 45 women. Total weight gain is the difference between measured weight at first and last maternal care visit.

  • §Weekly weight gain is the total weight gain divided by number of weeks between first and last maternal care visit.

  • ¶Information on parity is missing for 6 women.

  • **Information on education is missing for 5 women.

  • ††Information on marital status is missing for 21 women.

  • ‡‡Information on smoking is missing for 6 women.

  • §§Information on family history of diabetes is missing for 128 women.

  • BMI, body mass index; GDM, gestational diabetes mellitus; PREWICEII, Pregnant women in Iceland II.