Table 1

Default utility values and costs*

ParameterYear of the eventYears 2+Reference
Default utility values
Baseline and if no events occur0.8620.862Sakamaki et al21
Coronary heart disease–0.064–0.064Shiroiwa et al22
Stroke–0.129–0.129Takahara et al26
Amputation–0.216–0.216Takahara et al26
Retinopathy–0.054–0.054Shiroiwa et al22
Overt nephropathy–0.026–0.026Takahara et al26
End-stage renal disease–0.065–0.065Takahara et al26
Hemodialysis–0.065–0.065Takahara et al26
Hypoglycemia—non-severe–0.005Evans et al24
Hypoglycemia—severe–0.039Takahara et al26
BMI (each unit over 25 kg/m2)–0.0061–0.0061Bagust and Beale25
Default costs (inflated to 2019 values†)
Baseline and if no events occur¥76 363¥76 363Saito et al18
Coronary heart disease¥2 232 727¥254 618Onishi et al27
Stroke¥3 516 727¥109 391Fukuda et al28
Amputation¥941 617¥76 363Davis et al29/Saito et al18
Retinopathy¥379 887¥76 363Yanagi et al30/Saito et al18
Overt nephropathy¥85 214¥85 214Saito et al18
End-stage renal disease¥104 289¥104 289Saito et al18
Hemodialysis¥5 954 466¥5 954 466Saito et al18
Severe hypoglycemic event¥19 661Mano31
  • *All utility and cost inputs in the JJCEM are fully editable by the user.

  • †Costs were inflated using the Japanese medical care consumer price index from 2019 and the corresponding year of the data source.

  • BMI, body mass index; JJCEM, Japan Diabetes Complications Study/Japanese Elderly Diabetes Intervention Trial risk engine Cost-Effectiveness Model.