Table 1

Characteristics of UK Biobank participants by ethnic group and sex, excluding people with known diabetes at baseline

WomenMen
WhiteSouth AsianBlackChineseWhiteSouth AsianBlackChinese
n=231 137n=3559n=3210n=868n=188 375n=3841n=2368n=498
Age, years, mean (SD)56.5 (8.0)52.8 (8.1)51.6 (7.7)52.3 (7.4)56.7 (8.2)52.4 (8.5)51.1 (7.9)51.9 (7.9)
BMI, kg/m2, mean (SD)27.0 (5.0)27.0 (4.7)30.1 (5.8)23.3 (3.4)27.6 (4.1)26.7 (3.7)28.3 (4.2)25.1 (3.0)
Deprivation quintile, n (%)
 1 (least deprived)48 496 (21.0)370 (10.4)92 (2.9)129 (14.9)40 129 (21.3)349 (9.1)75 (3.2)74 (14.9)
 248 054 (20.8)367 (10.3)155 (4.8)134 (15.5)39 211 (20.8)368 (9.6)111 (4.7)86 (17.3)
 347 978 (20.8)547 (15.4)263 (8.2)145 (16.8)38 128 (20.3)539 (14.1)190 (8.1)67 (13.5)
 446 105 (20.0)1053 (29.6)698 (21.8)221 (25.6)36 477 (19.4)1062 (27.7)508 (21.5)126 (25.4)
 5 (most deprived)40 239 (17.4)1217 (34.2)1999 (62.3)236 (27.3)34 195 (18.2)1515 (39.5)1477 (62.6)143 (28.8)
Lifestyle score, n (%)
 0–1 (least healthy)42 (0.02)1 (0.03)1 (0.03)0.0 (0.00)275 (0.2)2 (0.1)8 (0.4)2 (0.4)
 2–32844 (1.3)15 (0.5)54 (1.8)5 (0.6)8630 (4.7)108 (3.1)129 (6.1)10 (2.1)
 4–534 167 (15.0)344 (10.4)556 (18.5)99 (12.0)54 786 (29.5)766 (22.0)676 (31.7)111 (23.3)
 6–7117 573 (51.5)1915 (57.7)1449 (48.3)432 (52.2)94 069 (50.7)1866 (53.6)975 (45.7)242 (50.8)
 8–9 (most healthy)73 627 (32.3)1046 (32.3)939 (31.3)291 (35.2)27 699 (15.0)741 (21.3)344 (16.1)111 (23.3)
HbA1c, median (IQR)35.0 (32.6–37.3)37.1 (34.3–40.0)37.1 (34.0–40.4)36.2 (33.6–38.9)34.9 (32.6–37.3)37.2 (34.5–40.0)37.6 (34.3–40.6)36.8 (34.2–39.2)
HbA1c category, n (%), WHO criteria
 Normal (<42)222 806 (96.4)3060 (86.0)2668 (83.1)796 (91.7)179 961 (95.5)3262 (84.9)1973 (83.3)449 (90.2)
 Pre-diabetes (42–47.9)7227 (3.1)383 (10.8)452 (14.1)61 (7.0)6617 (3.5)432 (11.3)318 (13.4)45 (9.0)
 Undiagnosed diabetes (≥48)1104 (0.5)116 (3.3)90 (2.8)11 (1.3)1797 (1.0)147 (3.8)77 (3.3)4 (0.8)
HbA1c category, n (%), ADA criteria
 Normal (<39)199 990 (86.5)2391 (67.2)2076 (64.7)652 (75.1)161 751 (85.9)2548 (66.3)1446 (61.1)358 (71.9)
 Pre-diabetes (39–47.9)30.043 (13.0)1.052 (29.6)1044 (35.5)205 (23.6)24 827 (13.2)1146 (29.8)845 (35.7)136 (27.3)
 Undiagnosed diabetes (≥48)1104 (0.5)116 (3.3)90 (2.8)11 (1.3)1797 (1.0)147 (3.8)77 (3.3)4 (0.8)
  • HbA1c measured in mmol/L.

  • ADA, American Diabetes Association; BMI, body mass index; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; n, number.