Table 2

SHR and 95% CI of the UACR trajectory groups for incident ESKD and all-cause death

UACR trajectory groupsModel 1Model 2Model 3
SHR (95% CI)P valueSHR (95% CI)P valueSHR (95% CI)P value
ESKD
 ‘Low-stable’ReferenceReferenceReference
 ‘High-decreasing’5.77 (2.57 to 7.58)<0.0014.28 (1.28 to 6.32)0.0082.04 (1.02 to 3.32)0.047
 ‘High-increasing’10.61 (4.47 to 14.38)<0.0018.32 (2.92 to 13.63)<0.0017.55 (1.82 to 10.21)0.006
All-cause mortality
 ‘Low-stable’ReferenceReferenceReference
 ‘High-decreasing’0.74 (0.45 to 1.77)0.1630.49 (0.23 to 0.77)0.4770.48 (0.28 to 0.87)0.439
 ‘High-increasing’2.67 (1.67 to 10.67)<0.0011.66 (1.34 to 6.78)0.0011.72 (1.43 to 6.80)0.018
  • Model 1: univariable (‘low-stable’ group as reference).

  • Model 2: adjusted for demographic characteristics at baseline (age, gender, BMI, diabetes duration, systolic blood pressure, use of RAS blocker, use of glucose-lowering agents, use of lipid-lowering agents, ever having smoked, and history of cardiovascular disease).

  • Model 3: model 2 + adjusted for laboratory characteristics at baseline (hemoglobin A1c, total cholesterol, eGFR, and UACR).

  • BMI, body mass index; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; ESKD, end-stage kidney disease; RAS, renin-angiotensin system; SHR, subdistribution HR; UACR, urine albumin to creatinine ratio.