Table 1

Baseline characteristics of study participants in BPRHS and SOALS stratified by T2D status*

Discovery: BPRHSReplication: SOALS
Without T2DWith T2DP valueWithout T2DWith T2DP value
n=322n=357n=934n=77
Age, years55.6 (7.2)58.4 (7.4)<0.00150.6 (6.8)51.8 (6.4)0.12
Sex, % female74730.6874600.009
Waist circumference, cm97.7 (13.9)106 (14.9)<0.001106 (14.3)109 (10.6)0.19
Body mass index, kg/m230.7 (6.3)33.6 (6.8)<0.00133.3 (6.3)33.3 (5.4)0.72
HDL-C (mg/dL)47.3 (14.1)43.1 (10.5)<0.00148.3 (12.6)46.2 (17.1)0.33
Triglyceride (mg/dL)†131 (85)148 (103)0.002129 (79)164 (107)<0.001
Glucose (mg/dL)95.7 (9.5)140 (58.3)<0.00192.4 (8.9)138 (50.2)<0.001
Insulin (µIU/mL)†11.4 (9.5)15.9 (11.9)<0.0018.9 (6.7)12.5 (8.6)<0.001
HbA1c (%)5.8 (0.4)8.0 (1.8)<0.0015.7 (0.3)7.0 (1.5)<0.001
HOMA-IR3.25 (2.20)8.11 (12.1)<0.0012.45 (1.68)4.55 (2.27)<0.001
Income, %, <$20 000/year68730.5046430.70
Perceived Stress Score23.6 (9.6)23.3 (9.7)0.5412.7 (6.9)11.6 (6.3)0.40
Acculturation, %18.4 (6.3)17.9 (6.7)0.40
Physical activity score32.1 (4.9)30.9 (4.1)0.0522.0 (40.2)21.1 (29.3)0.40
Alcohol consumption, %
 None in the past year53660.00255520.66
 Moderate38294145
 Heavy7421
Education level, %
 ≤8th grade47510.5511160.07
 9th–12th grade or equivalent38364353
 College/some graduate school15134631
Smoking status, %
 Never46470.3164620.90
 Former29321819
 Current25201817
American Heart Association Diet Score23.1 (9.6)24.0 (9.6)0.57
Mouthwash use53600.32
Family history of T2D52640.07
Lipid-lowering medication, %2559<0.00113160.60
Hypertension medication, %4070<0.001120<0.001
  • *Values are mean (SE) unless otherwise noted. P values are age-adjusted and sex-adjusted.

  • †Geometric mean and IQR.

  • BPRHS, Boston Puerto Rican Health Study; HbA1c, glycosylated hemoglobin; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HOMA-IR, Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance; SOALS, San Juan Overweight Adult Longitudinal Study; T2D, type 2 diabetes.