Table 2

OR (95% CI) for prevalent T2D per 1 SD difference in weighted sum of metabolite concentrations in top metabolite clusters among BPRHS (n=679) and SOALS (n=1011) participants*

Cluster numberCluster nameBPRHSSOALSMeta-analysis
nmetabOR (95% CI)FDROR (95% CI)FDROR (95% CI)P valueI2 (%)
33Glucose transport60.22 (0.14 to 0.32)<0.00010.21 (0.13 to 0.35)<0.00010.21 (0.16 to 0.30)<0.00010
2Sphingolipids180.44 (0.30 to 0.64)0.0020.33 (0.20 to 0.54)0.00010.40 (0.29 to 0.53)<0.00010
53Sugar metabolism52.41 (1.65 to 3.56)0.00042.07 (1.26 to 3.44)0.042.28 (1.68 to 3.09)<0.00010
21BCAA and aromatic amino acids131.96 (1.40 to 2.77)0.0072.79 (1.69 to 4.66)0.00062.22 (1.60 to 3.08)<0.000121
40Fatty acid biosynthesis61.54 (1.22 to 1.94)0.021.56 (1.15 to 2.11)0.041.54 (1.29 to 1.85)<0.00010
22Acyl cholines90.43 (0.31 to 0.60)<0.00010.27 (0.17 to 0.42)<0.00010.35 (0.22 to 0.56)<0.000162
14Amino acid metabolism152.21 (1.45 to 3.43)0.021.31 (0.72 to 2.38)1.001.78 (1.07 to 2.95)0.0349
26Cell membrane components80.46 (0.30 to 0.70)0.020.85 (0.50 to 1.44)1.000.61 (0.34 to 1.12)0.1169
25Aromatic amino acid metabolism112.01 (1.43 to 2.84)0.0040.93 (0.58 to 1.48)1.001.39 (0.65 to 2.96)0.3985
  • Benjamini-Hochberg FDR for 69 (BPRHS) or 9 (SOALS and meta-analysis) metabolite clusters.

  • *Statistically significant cross-sectional associations between metabolite clusters and prevalent T2D in logistic regression models among BPRHS participants are presented here. Associations between additional metabolite clusters and prevalent T2D in the BPRHS are presented in online supplemental table S2. Meta-analysis represents inverse-variance weighted random-effect meta-analysis estimates. Model adjusts for age, sex, smoking status (former, current, never), education, physical activity, alcohol intake, lipid-lowering medication (yes/no), hypertension medication (yes/no), income ($/year), acculturation (%; BPRHS only), Perceived Stress Score, AHA-DS (quartiles; BPRHS only), mouthwash use (yes/no; SOALS only), family history of T2D (yes/no; SOALS only), waist circumference (cm), and body mass index (kg/m2).

  • †Number of metabolites included in each cluster.

  • AHA-DS, American Heart Association Diet Score; BCAA, branched-chain amino acids; BPRHS, Boston Puerto Rican Health Study; FDR, false discovery rate; SOALS, San Juan Overweight Adult Longitudinal Study; T2D, type 2 diabetes.