Table 2

Associations of BC-GRS and IR-GRS with GDM

Model 1Model 2Model 3
OR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P value
BC-GRS (#SNP=39)
 GRS categorized as continuous1.28 (1.06 to 1.54)0.0111.40 (1.10 to 1.77)0.0051.37 (1.07 to 1.75)0.013
 GRS categorized as tertiles
 Tertile 11/1/1/
 Tertile 21.13 (0.72 to 1.77)0.6071.17 (0.67 to 2.05)0.5751.24 (0.69 to 2.23)0.464
 Tertile 31.65 (1.05 to 2.60)0.0302.25 (1.26 to 4.01)0.0052.12 (1.14 to 3.93)0.017
IR-GRS (#SNP=23)
 GRS categorized as continuous1.18 (0.98 to 1.42)0.0801.24 (0.98 to 1.56)0.0691.24 (0.97 to 1.58)0.079
 GRS categorized as tertiles
 Tertile 11/1/1/
 Tertile 21.07 (0.68 to 1.68)0.7721.01 (0.58 to 1.75)0.9820.96 (0.53 to 1.74)0.902
 Tertile 31.43 (0.91 to 2.25)0.1221.41 (0.81 to 2.45)0.2211.44 (0.81 to 2.56)0.219
  • Model 1 was the model without adjustment. Model 2 was adjusted for traditional confounders including age, gestational weeks, baseline BMI, family history of diabetes, drinking history, smoking history, education attainment, ethnicity group, weight gain during pregnancy, ALT, SBP, DBP, and parity. Model 3 was adjusted for traditional confounders in addition to TDCA. Bold values indicate the P values were statistically significant (P<0.05).

  • ALT, alanine aminotransferase; BC-GRS, beta-cell genetic risk score; BMI, body mass index; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; GDM, gestational diabetes mellitus; GRS, genetic risk score; IR-GRS, insulin resistance genetic risk score; SBP, systolic blood pressure; SNP, single nucleotide polymorphism; TDCA, taurodeoxycholic acid.