Table 1

Participant characteristics, intervention compliance, and clinical tests (n=20)

Age (years)60±6.9
Sex (women/men)7/13
Exercise sessions completed (%)89±12
Time in exercise protocol (days)69±5
Variation from heart rate goal (%)−0.24±7.12
MetricPrePostP value
 BMI (kg/m2)31.3±4.430.5±4.10.139
 MNSI physical exam score2.9±1.02.9±1.70.950
 HbA1c (%)7.2±1.27.1±1.30.770
 Fasting glucose (mg/dL)139.7±47.5143.4±45.90.616
 Glucose 120 min (mg/dL)265.0±104.8257.6±106.00.378
 Matsuda index6.0±5.54.1±2.90.400
 C reactive protein (mg/L)4.4±3.74.7±4.50.693
 VO2peak (mL/kg/min)19.4±4.619.4±4.30.984
  • Pre indicates preintervention and post indicates postintervention. P indicates statistical differences between preintervention and postintervention values (paired, two-tailed Student’s t-test).

  • Two VO2 peak data sets were excluded due to scheduling and technical difficulties.

  • BMI, body mass index; HbA1c, glycosylated hemoglobin; HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; MNSI, Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument.