Table 1

Characteristics of the participants at baseline

Total (n=102)Liraglutide (n=51)Placebo (n=51)P value
Sex (woman)16 (15.7%)6 (11.8%)10 (19.6%)0.28
Age (years)66.4 (8.2)65.9 (8.6)66.9 (7.8)0.56
Body mass index (kg/m2)29.9 (4.6)30.5 (5.3)29.3 (3.8)0.16
Type 2 diabetes
 Known duration in years10.9 (5.7; 18.2)12.2 (5.4; 18.2)10.2 (5.7; 19.2)0.65
 HbA1c (mmol/mol)58.4 (10.1)58.7 (9.6)58.0 (10.6)0.73
Kidney function
 Estimated glomerular filtration rate (mL/min/1.73 m2)83.2 (16.3)82.7 (17.6)83.7 (15.0)0.75
 Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (mg/g)6.0 (3.5–14.5)6.0 (3.5–15)6.0 (3.5–14.5)0.65
Cardiovascular risk factors
 Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)135 (17)133 (15)137 (20)0.25
 Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)79 (8)80 (7)79 (8)0.57
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L)4.1 (0.81)4.1 (0.80)4.1 (0.82)0.85
 LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L)2.1 (0.67)2.1 (0.72)2.1 (0.62)0.48
 HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L)1.2 (0.36)1.2 (0.38)1.3 (0.34)0.14
 Triglycerides (mmol/L)1.8 (1.0)2.1 (1.2)1.6 (0.78)0.01
 Current smoker14 (13.7%)10 (19.6%)4 (7.8%)0.08
History of cardiovascular event
 Myocardial infarction13 (12.8%)8 (15.7%)5 (9.8%)0.37
 Stroke6 (5.9%)3 (5.9%)3 (5.9%)1.00
 Peripheral arterial thrombosis2 (2.0%)2 (3.9%)0 (0.0%)0.50
History of cardiovascular symptoms
 Claudication4 (3.9%)3 (5.9%)1 (2.0%)0.62
 Angina pectoris5 (4.9%)4 (7.8%)1 (2.0%)0.36
 Any cardiovascular disease23 (22.6%)14 (27.5%)9 (17.7%)0.24
Glucose-lowering medication
 Insulin use39 (38.2%)20 (39.2%)19 (37.3%)0.84
 SGLT2 inhibitors20 (19.6%)8 (15.7%)12 (23.5%)0.32
Cardiovascular medication
 Aspirin treatment37 (36.3%)16 (31.4%)21 (41.2%)0.30
 Statins and/or ezetimibe88 (86.3%)46 (90.2%)42 (82.4%)0.25
 Fibrates1 (1.0%)1 (2.0%)0 (0.0%)1.00
  • Adapted from Ripa et al.8 Data are n (%), mean (SD) or median [IQR]. Differences in baseline characteristics between the liraglutide and the placebo group were tested using unpaired t-test and the χ2 test.

  • HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; SGLT2, sodium glucose transporter 2.